RUN OVERVIEW OF THE
RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLIDER


[RHIC Collider Projections, latest version[RHIC summary table]
[RHIC integrated luminosity plot LNN (heavy ions)] [RHIC integrated luminosity plot L (polarized protons)
[RHIC store-to-store and time-in-store plots]  [Hadron colliders peak luminosity plot]
[AtR Test (FY1995)]  [Sextant Test (FY1997)]  [Run-0 (FY1999)
[Run-1 (FY2000)  ]  [Run-2 (FY2001/02)]  [Run-3 (FY2003)  ]  [Run-4 (FY2004)  ]  [Run-5 (FY2005)  ] 
[Run-6 (FY2006)  ]  [Run-7 (FY2007)    ]  [Run-8 (FY2008)  ]  [Run-9 (FY2009)  ]  [Run-10 (FY2010)]
[Run-11 (FY2011)]  [Run-12 (FY2012)  ]  [Run-13 (FY2013)]  [Run-14 (FY2014)]   [Run-15 (FY2015)]
Fiscal years start on 1 October.
Data assembled by Wolfram Fischer. Last update:  19 Novemer 2014.


RHIC operating modes and total integrated luminosity delivered to 6 experiments
Run
species
total particle
energy
[GeV/nucleon]
calendar
time in

physics
total
delivered
luminosity
average store
polarization,
(H-jet)*
Run-1
CY2000, FY2000
33.6 cryo-weeks

197Au79+ + 197Au79+
27.9
3 shifts
< 0.001μb-1
197Au79+ + 197Au79+ 65.2
5.3 weeks
20 μb-1
Run-2
CY2001/02, FY2001/02
40.7 cryo-weeks

197Au79+ + 197Au79+ 100.0
15.9 weeks
258 μb-1
197Au79+ + 197Au79+ 9.8
2 shifts
0.4 μb-1
polarized p + p 100.2
8.3 weeks total,
no continous physics operation

1.4 pb-1 14%
Run-3
CY2002/03, FY2003
30.4 cryo-weeks

d + 197Au79+ 100.7—100.0
10.2 weeks
73 nb-1
polarized p + p 100.2
9.0 weeks total,
no continous physics
operation
5.5 pb-1 34%
Run-4
CY2003/04, FY2004
26.7 cryo-weeks
197Au79+ + 197Au79+ 100.0
12.0 weeks
3.53 nb-1
197Au79+ + 197Au79+ 31.2
9 days
67 μb-1
polarized p + p 100.2
6.1 weeks total,
no continous physics
operation
7.1 pb-1 46%
Run-5
CY2004/05, FY2005
31.4 cryo-weeks
63Cu29+ + 63Cu29+ 100.0
7.8 weeks
42.1 nb-1
63Cu29+ + 63Cu29+ 31.2
12 days
1.5 nb-1
63Cu29+ + 63Cu29+ 11.2
5 shifts
0.02 nb-1
polarized p + p 100.2
9.4 weeks
29.5 pb-1 47%
polarized p + p 204.9
2 stores
0.1 pb-1 30%
Run-6
CY2006, FY2006
21.2 cryo-weeks
polarized p + p 100.2 13.1 weeks
88.6 pb-1 55%
polarized p + p 31.2 12 days
1.05 pb-1 50%
Run-7
CY2006/07, FY2006
18.4 cryo-weeks
197Au79+ + 197Au79+ 100.0
12.8 weeks 7.25 nb-1
197Au79+ + 197Au79+ 4.6
3 shifts total,
no continous physics
operation
small
Run-8
CY2007/08, FY2008
19.0 cryo-weeks
d + 197Au79+ 100.7—100.0 9.0 weeks 437 nb-1
polarized p + p 100.2 3.4 weeks
38.4 pb-1
44%
197Au79+ + 197Au79+ 4.6 3 shifts
small
Run-9
CY2008/09, FY2009
22.0 cryo-weeks
polarized p + p 249.9
4.1 weeks 110 pb-1 34%
polarized p + p 100.2 9.9 weeks
114 pb-1 56%
polarized pp2pp 100.2 3.5 days
0.6 nb-1 63%
Run-10
CY2009/10, FY2010
27.1 cryo-weeks
197Au79+ + 197Au79+ 100.0 10.9 weeks
10.3 nb-1
197Au79+ + 197Au79+ 31.2
2.9 weeks
544 μb-1
197Au79+ + 197Au79+ 19.5
1.8 weeks
206 μb-1
197Au79+ + 197Au79+ 3.85
4.6 weeks
4.23 μb-1
197Au79+ + 197Au79+ 5.75
1.4 weeks
7.8 μb-1
Run-11
CY2010/11, FY2011
24.4 cryo-weeks

polarized p + p
249.9
9.7 weeks
166 pb-1
48%
197Au79+ + 197Au79+
9.8
1.4 weeks
33.2 μb-1

197Au79+ + 197Au79+
100.0
6.4 weeks
9.79 nb-1

197Au79+ + 197Au79+
13.5
8 days
63.1 μb-1

Run-12
CY2011/12, FY2012
22.9 cryo-weeks

polarized p + p 100.2 4.4 weeks
74.0 pb-1
59%
polarized p + p
254.9
4.9 weeks
283 pb-1 52%
238U92+ + 238U92+ 96.4
3.1 weeks
736 μb-1
63Cu29+ + 197Au79+ 99.9—100.0
5.4 weeks
27.0 nb-1
Run-13
CY2012/13, FY2013
17.0 cryo-weeks
polarized p + p 254.9 13.3 weeks
1.04 fb-1 52%
Run-14
CY2013/14, FY2014
22.0 cryo-weeks
197Au79+ + 197Au79+ 7.3
3.4 weeks 44.2 μb-1
197Au79+ + 197Au79+ 100.0
13.3 weeks 43.9 nb-1
h + 197Au79+ 103.9—100.0 2.4 weeks
134 nb-1
Run-15
CY2014/15, FY2015
(22.4 cryo-weeks planned)
polarized p + p 100.2 — in preparation —

polarized p + 197Au79+ 100
— in preparation —

polarized p + 27Au13+ 100 — in preparation —


    
RHIC nucleon-pair luminosity AA RHIC luminosity PP
Note: The nucleon-pair luminosity is defined as LNN = A1A2L, where L is the luminosity, and A1 and A2 are the number of nucleons of the ions in the two beams respectively. The proton polarization is intensity and time averaged over the whole run, as measured by the H-jet.


RHIC setup times RHIC store-to-store timesRHIC Time in Store
Note 1: Setup time to physics for the first species in the Run is measured from the time both rings are cold to the first physics store. For the following species it is measured from the beginning of setup to the first physics store.
Note 2: The store-to-store time is measured from lumi-off to lumi-on. Store-to-store times larger than 10 h are disregarded since they indicate failures.
Note 3: The time in store is measured from the lumi-on to the the lumi-off events. The lumi-on event comes after rebucketing but before collision steering and before collimation. Calendar time, including scheduled maintenance and accelerator physics experiments, is used to calculate the fractional time in store. The experiments use the time in store to a varying degree.

Hadron Collider Luminosity Evolution
Note: For ion collisions the nucleon-pair luminosity is shown. The nucleon-pair luminosity is defined as LNN = A1A2L, where L is the luminosity, and A1 and A2 are the number of nucleons of the ions in the two beam respectively. The highest energies for the machines are: ISR 31 GeV, SPS 315 GeV, Tevatron 980 GeV, HERA 920 GeV (p) 27.5 GeV (e), RHIC 255 GeV, LHC 4.0 TeV.


RHIC Runs

Run-15
CY2014/15
FY2015







Mode 2B: polarized p on 27Al13+ at 100 GeV/nucleon particle energy [Run-15 Au-Au web site]
Summary paper:
Beam operation:
Run Coordinator: Chuyu Liu
Major accomplishments and events: Al beam in Blue ring, Au beam in Yellow ring;
Achieved beam parameters:
no of
bunches
ions/bunch
[109]
β*
[m]
rms emittance
[μm]
Linit, Lpeak
[cm-2s-1]
Lstore avg
[cm-2s-1]
Lweek
[nb-1]







injection: γ = store: γ =


Total delivered integrated luminosities:
experiment β*
[m]
luminosity
[nb-1]




PHENIX





STAR





Time in store: ??% of calendar time







Mode 2A: polarized p on 197Au79+ at 100 GeV/nucleon particle energy [Run-15 Au-Au web site]
Summary paper:
Beam operation:
Run Coordinator: Chuyu Liu
Major accomplishments and events: LION upgrade with new (rotating) Au and Al target; beam dump upgraded to allow for higher Au intensity (new Ti alloy vacum window and new CC blocks allow for higher energy density); removed 56 MHz SRF HOM damper; p beam in Blue ring, Au beam in Yellow ring; moved DX magnets transversely (2.5 cm in IR6 and IR8, 2 cm in all other IRs; IR2 and IR4 moved before Run-15 start, all other IRs after completion of mode 1; movement always towards Au beam in Yellow ring)
Achieved beam parameters: 
no of
bunches
ions/bunch
[109]
β*
[m]
rms emittance
[μm]
Linit, Lpeak
[cm-2s-1]
Lstore avg
[cm-2s-1]
Lweek
[nb-1]







injection: γ = store: γ =


Total delivered integrated luminosities:
experiment β*
[m]
luminosity
[nb-1]




PHENIX





STAR





Time in store: ??% of calendar time







Mode 1: polarized p on polarized p at 100.2 GeV particle energy [Run-15 p-p web site]
Summary paper:
Beam operation: Run start planned for beginning of January 2015
Run Coordinator: Vincent Schoefer
Major accomplishments and events: 200 MeV polarimeter upgrade; Booster RF operation with simultaneous harmonics h=1 and h=2 (only h=1 in the past) to accomodate higher intensity, RHIC transverse bunch-by-bunch dipole damper installed in both planes of both rings; abort kicker upgrade to allow for higher p intensity (heated up in previous runs — installed water cooling, changed ferrites and increased eddy current strips); installed movable masks in Blue sector 11 and Yellow sector 8 to protect experiments from effects of abort kicker pre-fires (replace large orbit bumps in previous run); electron lenses with increased cathodes (7.5 mm radius vs. 4.1 mm in Run-14), instrumentation upgrade, and Blue solenoid modified with He cooling of coil at inner diameter (to allow for higher solenoid field); new vacuum chamber in sectors 5 and 6 for Roman pots; moved DX magnets in IR2 (2 cm) and IR4 transversely (1.75 cm); new lattices based on ATS optics; new bipolar q-trim power supplies (required for ATS lattice)
Achieved beam parameters:
no of
bunches
ions/bunch
[109]
β*
[m]
rms emittance
[μm]
Linit
[cm-2s-1]
Lstore avg
[cm-2s-1]
Lweek
[pb-1]







injection: γ = 25.397 store: γ = 106.831, Gγ = 191.5



experiment β*
[m]
luminosity
[pb-1]
luminosity
[rel. to Run-11]



PHENIX





STAR





Time in store: ??% of calendar time














Run-14
CY2013/14
FY2014
Retreat at end of Run-14, 08/13/2014 - 08/14/2014, BNL [Retreat web site]
Mode 2: h at 103.9 GeV/nucleon on 197Au79+ at 100 GeV/nucleon particle energy [Run-14 Au-Au web site]
h (helion) is the nucleus of the 3He (helium-3) atom.
Summary paper:
Beam operation: 06/16/2014 - 07/06/2014 [20 days total, 17 for physics]
Run Coordinator: Guillaume Robert-Demolaize (Christoph Montag)
Major accomplishments and events: h beam in Blue ring, Au beam in Yellow ring; reverted polarity of Blue D0 shunt power supplies; 1.6 mrad common angle (between beam and nominal beam trajectory) in IR6 and IR8, 2.5 mrad in Blue and 1.6 mrad in Yellow in other IRs; Blue h beam with 10 mm horizontal orbit excursions in IR6 and IR8 triplets, and none in other IRs, Yellow Au beam with 10 mm horizontal orbit excursions in IR6 and IR8, and 5 mm excursions in other IRs - path lenght in Blue 10 mm longer than in Yellow; 20 mm pre-fire protection orbit bumps in Blue between IP10 and IP12, and IP12 and IP2; 20 mm pre-fire protection bumps in Yellow between IP6 and IP8, and IP8 and IP10; 3.4 days setup to physics; tested Yellow vertical bunch-by-bunch dipole damper; 2 stores with STAR rates reduced to 2 kHz (4% of normal initial luminosity) with vertical offset; 3h injection test of fixed Au target in STAR; tested new main PS regulator; cold DX move by 2 cm and back in sector 5 at end of run
Achieved beam parameters:
no of
bunches
ions/bunch
[109]
β*
[m]
rms emittance
[μm]
Linit
[cm-2s-1]
Lstore avg
[cm-2s-1]
Lweek
[nb-1]
111
45 h / 1.3 Au
1.0
2.0 → 3.0 h
2.0 → 1.5 Au
17×1028 10×1028 33
injection: γ = 11.149
store: γ = 110.798 (h), 107.412 (Au)


Total delivered integrated luminosities:
experiment β*
[m]
luminosity
[nb-1]




PHENIX 1.0
72.3




STAR 1.0
61.4




Time in store: 63% of calendar time







Mode 1B: 197Au79+ on 197Au79+ at 100 GeV/nucleon particle energy [Run-14 Au-Au web site]
Summary paper:
Beam operation: 03/11/2014 - 06/16/2014 [97 days total, 93 for physics]
Run Coordinator: Guillaume Robert-Demolaize (Christoph Montag)
Major accomplishments and events: new longitudinal stochastic cooling pick-ups (keyhole design) and kickers (scissor design); first Au+Au operation with full 3D cooling; Landau cavities with h=2580 turn on before transition crossing (previously after); installed bunch-by-bunch transverse damper in Yellow; Blue and Yellow electron lenses installed completely (not needed for head-on beam-beam compensation with Au+Au) - demonstrated effect on orbit and tune, no additional emittance growth; installed 20 mm orbit bumps in Blue (in arc between IR10 and IR12, and arc between IR12 and IR2) and Yellow (in arc between IR8 and IR10, and arc between IR10 and IR12) to protect experiments better in case of unsynchronized prefire - losses will be at obit bumps instead of experimental triplet, only one bump is needed for protection - the second bump cancels the dispersion wave generated by the first bump, bumps are collapsed before dump to avoid quenches due to unbunched beam dumped in cold magnets; 4 days setup to physics; 10 h store length; restored Siemens motor-generator operation on 04/03/2014; gating of longitudinal cooling avoid trapping of beam in unused buckets; beginning 05/01/2014 introduce vertical offset in STAR after 3 h in store to limit ZDC rates to 50 kHz maximum; beginning 05/27/2014 store length 11 h and STAR ZDC rates dropped to 50 kHz after 2.5 h in store; first use of Laser Ion Source (LION) for RHIC (first fillno 18381); operational dynamic beta squeeze during store from β* = 0.7 to 0.5 m at STAR and PHENIX - 7 h into store; 56 MHz SRF operational with 300 kV limited by HOM damper quench limit; implemented ramp optics correction; tested fins of p-C polarimeters to reduce heating of C ribbion; CeC PoP installation during run
Achieved beam parameters:
no of
bunches
ions/bunch
[109]
β*
[m]
rms emittance
[μm]
Linit, Lpeak
[cm-2s-1]
Lstore avg
[cm-2s-1]
Lweek
[nb-1]
111
1.6
0.7 → 0.5 2.5 → 0.65 80, 84×1026 50×1026 2.2
injection: γ = 10.52
store: γ = 107.396


Total delivered integrated luminosities:
experiment β*
[m]
luminosity
[nb-1]
luminosity
[rel. to Run-11]



PHENIX 0.7
23.12
4.7×


STAR 0.7
20.74
4.3×


Time in store: 68% of calendar time







Mode 1A: 197Au79+ on 197Au79+ at 7.3 GeV/nucleon particle energy [Run-14 Au-Au web site]
Summary paper:
Beam operation: 02/09/2014 - 03/11/2014 [31 days total, 24 for physics]
Run Coordinator: Christoph Montag
Major accomplishments and events: EBIS RFQ and Linac re-alignment; raised STAR magnet by 7 mm; prepared for DX movement; VOHD system operational (He realease first detected in insulating vacuum instead of tunnel) - requirement for POM and escape packs removed; internal Au target installed in STAR experimental beam pipe (210 cm from IP, vertically at bottom, 2 cm aperture, in shadow of Be pipe); beam extraction from AGS close to and below transition (γtr = 8.5); AGS main magnet slow feedback at flattop; 56 MHz SRF cavity installed and cooled (needed to allow for beam operation); 4K cool-down of both rings in 3 days; lattice suitable for low-energy cooling in the future - Blue IP2 (βx, βy) = (34 m, 14 m), Yellow IP2 (βx, βy) = (13 m, 49 m); tunes near integer (Qx,Qy) = (28.08,29.09) to allow for larger space charge tune range; 9 days setup to physics; after Siemens motor-generator cyclo-converter failure 1 day lost in switch to from Siemens to Westinghouse motor-generator set on 02/20/2014; store length of 1 h, reduced to 45 min on 03/04/2014; continous gap cleaning; 30 min without beam every day for PHENIX detector to establish noise level
Achieved beam parameters:
no of
bunches
ions/bunch
[109]
β*
[m]
rms emittance
[μm]
Lpeak
[cm-2s-1]
Lstore avg
[cm-2s-1]
Lweek
[μb-1]
111
1.1
3.5
1.7 → 1.7 1×1026 0.2×1026 8.1
injection: γ = 7.84 store: γ = 7.84



Total delivered integrated luminosities:
experiment β*
[m]
luminosity
[μb-1]




PHENIX 3.5
23.0



STAR 3.5
21.2



Time in store: 57% of calendar time














Run-13
CY2012/13
FY2013
Retreat at end of Run-13, 07/25/2013 - 07/26/2013, BNL [Retreat web site]
Mode 1: polarized p on polarized p at 254.9 GeV particle energy [Run-13 p-p web site]
Summary paper: V.H. Ranjbar, L. Ahrens, E.C. Aschenauer, M. Bai, J. Beebe-Wang, M. Blaskiewicz, J.M. Brennan, K.A. Brown, D. Bruno, R. Connolly, T. D'Ottavio, K.A. Drees, Y. Dutheil, W. Fischer, C.J. Gardner, J. Glenn, X. Gu, M. Harvey, T. Hayes, H. Huang, R. Hulsart, A.I. Kirleis, J.S. Laster, C. Liu, Y. Luo, Y. Makdisi, G.J. Marr, A. Marusic, F. Meot, K. Mernick, R. Michnoff, M. Minty, C. Montag, J. Morris, S. Nemesure, P. Pile, A. Poblaguev, V. Ptitsyn, G. Robert-Demolaize, T. Roser, W.B. Schmidke, V. Schoefer, F. Severino, T. Shrey, D. Smirnov, K. Smith, D. Steski, S. Tepikian, D. Trbojevic, N. Tsoupas, J. Tuozzolo, G. Wang, M. Wilinski, K. Yip, A. Zaltsman, A. Zelenski, K. Zeno, S.Y. Zhang, and O. Eyser, "RHIC polarized proton operation for 2013", proceedigns of the International Particle Accelerator Conference 2013, Shanghai, China (2013).
Beam operation: 02/17/2013 - 06/10/2013 [113 days total, 93 for physics]
Run Coordinator: Vahid Ranjbar (AGS Coordingator: Haixin Huang)
Major accomplishments and events: OPPIS upgrade with Atomic Beam Source (ABS) and new superconducting solenoid; AGS horizontal and vertical survey; mechanical upgrade of 9 MHz RF system; RHIC pC polarimeter upgrades with targets and rf screens; new STAR Be beam pipe (4 cm ID) - found to be 9 mm low; horizontal phase shifter ps between IR8 and IR10 in Blue and Yellow; new lattice for electron lenses to have phase advances that are multiples of 180 deg betwenn IP8 and IP10 - Blue integer tunes (27.,29.), Yellow integer tunes (29.,30.) instead of previous integer tunes (28.,29.); 2 out of 4 Westinghouse Motor-Generator bearings replaced, AGS setup with Westinghouse, reached 1.3×1011 with P = 70% at AGS flattop (2% absolute less than with Siemens); motor-rotor of the Siemens Motor-Generator repaired after overheated connection was found, back in service when the 4K wave started; Blue electron lens installed with EBIS spare solenoid; Yellow electron lens installed with solenoind from SMD but without Y-pipes and no electron beam; lab closed for 4 days after blizzard Nemo on 02/08/13 - 78.5 cm of snow; 21 days from first beam to physics; first operational use of longitudinal damper at injection - allowed to reduce Landau cavity voltage; reverted to Run-12 lattices on 04/04/13 since polarization with e-lens lattices is lower than in Run-12 (16.5 h to physics); first operational use of longitudinal damper on the energy ramp; luminosity limited by emittance growth due to electron clouds in rotators after rebucketing - moved rebucketing to end of rotator ramp; tested orbit interlock for future high-intensity operation (beam abort with 1cm orbit deviation); implemented D' correction at snakes in Blue ring (from 100 GeV, ramping down during rotator ramp) to reduce momentum dependence of spin tune - taken out again since Blue polarization is lower with the D' correction; accelerated 1010 He-3 ion/bunch in AGS - 3.3x more than previous year (2 bunch merges in AGS still to be implemented); Booster E6 quadrupole with shorted fittings prevents operation on 06/08/13; bunched proton beam in RHIC with rigidity of 2.5 GeV/nucleon Au beam with acceptable lifetime for collider operation (Yellow only, no collisions); test VODH system so that RHIC tunnel can be posted ODH-0 again (had been posted ODH-1 after re-evaluation following the LHC 2008 incident and required personal oxigen monitors and escape packs for entry)
Achieved beam parameters:
no of
bunches
ions/bunch
[109]
β*
[m]
rms emittance
[μm]
Lpeak
[cm-2s-1]
Lstore avg
[cm-2s-1]
Lweek
[pb-1]
111
185
0.65
3.1 → 3.9 245×1030 160×1030 60
Average store polarization    : (50.0±0.3)% in Blue, (53.3±0.3) in Yellow (online H-jet measurements)*
14 best stores (17416-17433): (57.0±0.9)% in Blue, (57.7±0.7) in Yellow
injection: γ = 25.397 store: γ = 271.635, Gγ = 487.0


Total delivered integrated luminosities:
experiment β*
[m]
luminosity
[pb-1]
luminosity
[rel. to Run-12]



PHENIX 0.65
543
4.1× (preliminary)

STAR 0.65
500
3.5× (preliminary)

Time in store: 56% of calendar time














Run-12
CY2011/12
FY2012
Retreat at end of Run-12, 07/25/2012 - 07/27/2012, Bellport [Retreat web site]
Mode 4: 197Au79+ on 197Au79+ at 2.5 GeV/nucleon particle energy [Run-12 Au-Au web site]
Summary paper: C. Montag, L. Ahrens, M. Bai, J. Beebe-Wang, I. Blackler, M. Blaskiewicz, J.M. Brennan, K.A. Brown, D. Bruno, R. Connolly, T. D'Ottavio, K.A. Drees, W. Fischer, C.J. Gardner, X. Gu, M. Harvey, T. Hayes, L.T. Hoff, H. Huang, R. Hulsart, J.S. Laster, C. Liu, Y. Luo, G.J. Marr, A. Marusic, F. Meot, K. Mernick, R. Michnoff, M. Minty, J. Morris, S. Nemesure, V.H. Ranjbar, G. Robert-Demolaize, T. Roser, V. Schoefer, F. Severino, T. Shrey, K. Smith, S. Tepikian, J. Tuozzolo, M. Wilinski, A. Zaltsman, K. Zeno, W. Zhang, "First RHIC collider test operation at 2.5 GeV beam energy", proceedigns of the International Particle Accelerator Conference 2013, Shanghai, China (2013).
Beam operation: 06/25/2012 - 06/27/2012  [2 days total, no physics]
Run Coordinator: Christoph Montag
Major accomplishments and events: similar to Run-10 1F but with different sextupole settings - Run-10 used the online model which gave incorrect values at the low energy and lead to large chromaticities; low injection efficiency; captured beam lifetimes of 3 min in Blue and 5 min in Yellow; colliding beams; 2 min store time with both beams filled; STAR observed event
Achieved beam parameters:
no of
bunches
ions/bunch
[109]
β*
[m]
rms emittance
[μm]
Lpeak
[cm-2s-1]
Lstore avg
[cm-2s-1]
Lweek
[μb-1]
27, 43
0.03B / 0.02Y
8.0
(not measured)
injection: γ = 2.68 store: γ = 2.68









Mode 3: 63Cu29+ at 99.9 GeV/nucleon on 197Au79+ at 100.0 GeV/nucleon particle energy [Run-12 Cu-Au web site]
Summary papers: Y. Luo, J. Alessi, M. Bai, E. Beebe, J. Beebe-Wang, I. Blackler, M. Blaskiewicz, J.M. Brennan, K.A. Brown, D. Bruno, J. Butler, R. Connolly, T. D'Ottavio, K.A. Drees, A.V. Fedotov, W. Fischer, C.J. Gardner, D.M. Gassner, X. Gu, Y. Hao, M. Harvey, T. Hayes, L.T. Hoff, H. Huang, P. Ingrassia, J. Jamilkowski, N.A. Kling, M. Lafky, J.S. Laster, C. Liu, D. Maffei, Y. Makdisi, M. Mapes, G.J. Marr, A. Marusic, F. Meot, K. Mernick, R. Michnoff, M. Minty, C. Montag, J. Morris, C. Naylor, S. Nemesure, A.I. Pikin, P. Pile, V. Ptitsyn, D. Raparia, G. Robert-Demolaize, T. Roser, P.W. Sampson, J. Sandberg, V. Schoefer, C. Schultheiss, F. Severino, T. Shrey, K. Smith, S. Tepikian, P. Thieberger, D. Trbojevic, J. Tuozzolo, B. Van Kuik, G. Wang, M. Wilinski, A. Zaltsman, K. Zeno, S.Y. Zhang, and W. Zhang, "RHIC performance for FY2012 heavy ion run", proceedings of the International Particle Accelerator Conference 2013, Shanghai, China (2013);
Y. Luo, W. Fischer, M. Blaskiewicz, M. Brennan, N. Kling, K. Mernick, T. Roser, "Burn-off dominated uranium and asymmetric copper-gold operation in RHIC", proceedings of the North-American Particle Accelerator Conference 2013, Pasadena, California, USA (2013).
Beam operation: 05/15/2012 - 06/25/2012  [41 days total, 38 for physics]
Run Coordinator: Yun Luo
Major accomplishments and events: first Cu-Au operation in a collider; re-optimization of IR2, IR4, IR10 and IR12; 3.5 days from species switch to physics; 3D stochastic cooling resulting in 14h store length; change from argon to neon in hollow cathode ion source results in 20% highter Cu intensity (Ar and Cu ions have close rigidity); change of Blue ramp tunes from (0.230,0.215) to (0.231,0.223) improves transmission; instabilities at transition in routine operation - with stochastic cooling acceptable as long as there is no intensity loss; 4 stores with third collision in IP2 to test calorimeter in AnDY installation for furture STAR use; heat wave 20 to 22 June 2012 leads to downtime with failing AC units; power distribution leads to power dip and power failure to AGS systems - 29 h recovery time; test of Blue phase shifter power supply
Achieved beam parameters:
no of
bunches
 ions/bunch
[109]
β*
[m]
rms emittance
[μm]
Linit, Lpeak
[cm-2s-1]
Lstore avg
[cm-2s-1]
Lweek
[nb-1]
111
4.0Cu / 1.3Au
0.7
4.1 → 1.2 120, 120×1026 100×1026 3.5
injection: γ = 10.52
store: γ = 107.396


Total delivered integrated luminosities:
experiment β*
[m]
luminosity
[nb-1]




PHENIX 0.7
13.5




STAR 0.7
13.5




Time in store: 65% of calendar time







Mode 2: 238U92+ on 238U92+ at 96.4 GeV/nucleon particle energy [Run-12 U-U web site]
Summary paper: Y. Luo, J. Alessi, M. Bai, E. Beebe, J. Beebe-Wang, I. Blackler, M. Blaskiewicz, J.M. Brennan, K.A. Brown, D. Bruno, J. Butler, R. Connolly, T. D'Ottavio, K.A. Drees, A.V. Fedotov, W. Fischer, C.J. Gardner, D.M. Gassner, X. Gu, Y. Hao, M. Harvey, T. Hayes, L.T. Hoff, H. Huang, P. Ingrassia, J. Jamilkowski, N.A. Kling, M. Lafky, J.S. Laster, C. Liu, D. Maffei, Y. Makdisi, M. Mapes, G.J. Marr, A. Marusic, F. Meot, K. Mernick, R. Michnoff, M. Minty, C. Montag, J. Morris, C. Naylor, S. Nemesure, A.I. Pikin, P. Pile, V. Ptitsyn, D. Raparia, G. Robert-Demolaize, T. Roser, P.W. Sampson, J. Sandberg, V. Schoefer, C. Schultheiss, F. Severino, T. Shrey, K. Smith, S. Tepikian, P. Thieberger, D. Trbojevic, J. Tuozzolo, B. Van Kuik, G. Wang, M. Wilinski, A. Zaltsman, K. Zeno, S.Y. Zhang, and W. Zhang, "RHIC performance for FY2012 heavy ion run", proceedigns of the International Particle Accelerator Conference 2013, Shanghai, China (2013);
Y. Luo, W. Fischer, M. Blaskiewicz, M. Brennan, N. Kling, K. Mernick, T. Roser, "Burn-off dominated uranium and asymmetric copper-gold operation in RHIC", proceedings of the North-American Particle Accelerator Conference 2013, Pasadena, California, USA (2013).
Beam operation: 04/19/2012 - 05/15/2012  [26 days total, 22 for physics]
Run Coordinator: Yun Luo
Major accomplishments and events: first use of EBIS for RHIC operation; first U-U operation in a collider; used standard lattice to increase off-momentum dynamic aperture; 5 days from species switch to physics; intensity after BtA stripping foil (U39+ → U90+) is only 37% of incoming intesity (had expected >50% based on GLOBAL simulation); Booster 4→2→1 merge on intermediate energy level; AGS 8→4→2 merge at injection; first use of Blue and Yellow horizontal stochastic cooling (resulting in 3D cooling in both rings); first RHIC store in which the maximum luminosity exceeds the initial luminosity (due to cooling); first use of BPM offsets determined by beam-based measurement; re-optimization of IR6 and IR8 local coupling correction, leading to reduction of global coupling corrector strenghts; first operation where all beam losses are due to burn-off; due to small beam size need micro-vernier scan in addition to automatic orbit correction every 1/2 h; test of Yellow phase shifter power supply
Achieved beam parameters:
no of
bunches
 ions/bunch
[109]
β*
[m]
rms emittance
[μm]
Linit, Lpeak
[cm-2s-1]
Lstore avg
[cm-2s-1]
Lweek
[μb-1]
111
0.3
0.7
2.2 → 0.4 3.4, 8.8×1026 5.6×1026 200
injection: γ = 10.14 store: γ = 103.482



Total delivered integrated luminosities:
experiment β*
[m]
luminosity
[μb-1]




PHENIX 0.7
368




STAR 0.7
368




Time in store: 72% of calendar time







Mode 1B: polarized p on polarized p at 254.9 GeV particle energy [Run-12 p-p web site]
Summary paper: V. Schoefer, L. Ahrens, G. Atoian, M. Bai, J. Beebe-Wang, M. Blaskiewicz, J.M. Brennan, K.A. Brown, D. Bruno, R. Connolly, T. D'Ottavio, K.A. Drees, W. Fischer, C.J. Gardner, J.W. Glenn, X. Gu, M. Harvey, T. Hayes, L.T. Hoff, H. Huang, R. Hulsart, J.S. Laster, C. Liu, Y. Luo, G.J. Marr, A. Marusic, F. Meot, K. Mernick, R. Michnoff, M. Minty, C. Montag, J. Morris, S. Nemesure, A. Poblaguev, V. Ptitsyn, V.H. Ranjbar, G. Robert-Demolaize, T. Roser, F. Severino, K. Smith, D. Steski, S. Tepikian, D. Trbojevic, N. Tsoupas, J. Tuozzolo, G. Wang, M. Wilinski, K. Yip, A. Zaltsman, A. Zelenski, K. Zeno, and S.Y. Zhang, "RHIC polarized proton operation in Run 12", proceedings of the International Particle Accelerator Conference 2012, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, pp. 184-186 (2012).
Beam operation: 03/12/2012 - 04/19/2012 [38 days total, 34 for physics]
Run Coordinator: Vincent Schoefer
Major accomplishments and events: increased store energy to increase polarization lifetime; 3.5 days from energy switch to physics; snakes ramp between 100 GeV and 255 GeV; scan of snake spin rotation axis angle and spin rotation angle; test of longitudinal injection damper; test of Landau phase error compensation (phase error from Booster) compensation; test of short AGS cycle (2.7 s); test of Blue vertical phase shifter power supply (adjusts betatron phase between IR8 and IR10); H-jet polarization measurement at injection (Yellow beam only)
Achieved beam parameters:
no of
bunches
 ions/bunch
[109]
β*
[m]
rms emittance
[μm]
Lpeak
[cm-2s-1]
Lstore avg
[cm-2s-1]
Lweek
[pb-1]
109
170
0.65
3.5 → 4.2 165×1030 105×1030 32
Average store polarization    : (50.3±0.5)% in Blue, (53.5±0.5) in Yellow (online H-jet measurements)*
14 best stores (16619-16667): (52.0±0.8)% in Blue, (58.2±0.8) in Yellow
Polarization at injection: (63±4.4)% in Yellow (online H-jet measurements)*
injection: γ = 25.397
store: γ = 271.635, Gγ = 487.0


Total delivered integrated luminosities:
experiment
β*
[m]
luminosity
[pb-1]
luminosity
[rel. to Run-11]



PHENIX 0.65
133
1.5×


STAR 0.65
144
2.1×


AnDY
2.0
6.4
0.9×


Time in store: 54% of calendar time







Mode 1A: polarized p on polarized p at 100.2 GeV particle energy [Run-12 p-p web site]
Summary paper: V. Schoefer, L. Ahrens, G. Atoian, M. Bai, J. Beebe-Wang, M. Blaskiewicz, J.M. Brennan, K.A. Brown, D. Bruno, R. Connolly, T. D'Ottavio, K.A. Drees, W. Fischer, C.J. Gardner, J.W. Glenn, X. Gu, M. Harvey, T. Hayes, L.T. Hoff, H. Huang, R. Hulsart, J.S. Laster, C. Liu, Y. Luo, G.J. Marr, A. Marusic, F. Meot, K. Mernick, R. Michnoff, M. Minty, C. Montag, J. Morris, S. Nemesure, A. Poblaguev, V. Ptitsyn, V.H. Ranjbar, G. Robert-Demolaize, T. Roser, F. Severino, K. Smith, D. Steski, S. Tepikian, D. Trbojevic, N. Tsoupas, J. Tuozzolo, G. Wang, M. Wilinski, K. Yip, A. Zaltsman, A. Zelenski, K. Zeno, and S.Y. Zhang, "RHIC polarized proton operation in Run 12", proceedings of the International Particle Accelerator Conference 2012, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, pp. 184-186 (2012).
Beam operation: 01/21/2012 - 03/12/2012 [51 days total, 31 days for physics]
Run Coordinator: Vincent Schoefer
Major accomplishments and events: 2 new Landau cavities installed in RHIC (harmonic number adjusted so that consecutive bunches have 180 deg phase difference); Yellow primary collimator inspected (no sign of damage); AGS horizontal alignment; 9 MHz system upgraded; AGS horizontal tune jump timing improved (eliminated increasing timing error on ramp, better synchronization of falling edges); operation from new Main Control Room; down ramp does not stop at injection any more, ramp from park to injection with 2x ramp speed compared to previous runs (saves 2.9 min per ramp); Blue beam reaches 100 GeV in first ramp attempt; 16 days from both rings cold to physics (as planned); tested a few stores with both Blue tunes below 0.7 and both Yellow tunes above 0.7 (suppresses coherent beam-beam modes, luminosity and polarization lifetime smaller)
Achieved beam parameters:
no of
bunches
ions/bunch
[109]
β*
[m]
rms emittance
[μm]
Lpeak
[cm-2s-1]
Lstore avg
[cm-2s-1]
Lweek
[pb-1]
109
160
0.85
3.3 → 4.2
46×1030
33×1030
9.3
Average store polarization: 61.8 in Blue, 56.6 in Yellow (online H-jet measurements)*
injection: γ = 25.397
store: γ = 106.831, Gγ = 191.5


Total delivered integrated luminosities:
experiment
β*
[m]
luminosity
[pb-1]
luminosity
[rel. to Run-9]



PHENIX
0.85
37.9
0.62×
vertical polarization
STAR
0.85
36.1
0.67×
vertical polarization
Time in store: 59% of calendar time














Run-11
CY2010/11
FY2011
Retreat at end of Run-11, 07/20/2011 - 07/22/2011, Bellport [Retreat web site]
Mode 2C: 197Au79+ on 197Au79+ at 13.5 GeV/nucleon particle energy [Run-11 Au-Au web site]
Summary paper: Summary paper: G. Marr, L. Ahrens, M. Bai, J. Beebe-Wang, I. Blackler, M. Blaskiewicz, J.M. Brennan, K.A. Brown, D. Bruno, J. Butler, C. Carlson, R. Connolly, T. D'Ottavio, K.A. Drees, A.V. Fedotov, W. Fischer, W. Fu, C.J. Gardner, D.M. Gassner, J.W. Glenn, X. Gu, M. Harvey, T. Hayes, L.T. Hoff, H. Huang, P.F. Ingrassia, J.P. Jamilkowski, N. Kling, M. Lafky, J.S. Laster, C. Liu, Y. Luo, M. Mapes, A. Marusic, K. Mernick, R.J. Michnoff, M.G. Minty, C. Montag, J. Morris, C. Naylor, S. Nemsures, S. Polizzo, V. Ptitsyn, G. Robert-Demolaize, T. Roser, P. Sampson, J. Sandberg, V. Schoefer, C. Schultheiss, F. Severino, T. Shrey, K. Smith, D. Steski, S. Tepikian, P. Thieberger, D. Trbojevic, N. Tsoupas, J.E. Tuozzolo, B. Van Kuik, G. Wang, M. Wilinski, A. Zaltsman, K. Zeno, and S.Y. Zhang, "RHIC performance for FY2011 Au+Au heavy ion run", proceedings International Particle Accelerator Conference 2011, San Sebastian, Spain, pp. 1894-1896 (2011).
Beam operation: 06/20/2011 - 06/29/2011 [9 days total, 8 days for physics]
Run Coordinator: Greg Marr
Major accomplishments and events: 1 day setup to physics; 1 h store length; tested rigidity for U operation at 100 GeV/nucleon (3.5% higher than for Au) sucessfully (DX and D0 magnets were excluded from test) - dipole training quench in Blue sector 9 (D15-D20) with dipole current increased by another 25 A
Achieved beam parameters:
no of
bunches
ions/bunch
[109]
β*
[m]
rms emittance
[μm]
Lpeak
[cm-2s-1]
Lstore avg
[cm-2s-1]
Lweek
[μb-1]
111
1.45
3.0
3.0 → 3.3
2.0×1026
1.2×1026
30
injection: γ = 10.52
store: γ = 14.498



Total delivered integrated luminosities:
experiment
β*
[m]
luminosity
[μb-1]




PHENIX
3.0
32.7




STAR
3.0
30.4




Time in store: 64% of calendar time







Mode 2B: 197Au79+ on 197Au79+ at 100.0 GeV/nucleon particle energy [Run-11 Au-Au web site]
Summary paper: Summary paper: G. Marr, L. Ahrens, M. Bai, J. Beebe-Wang, I. Blackler, M. Blaskiewicz, J.M. Brennan, K.A. Brown, D. Bruno, J. Butler, C. Carlson, R. Connolly, T. D'Ottavio, K.A. Drees, A.V. Fedotov, W. Fischer, W. Fu, C.J. Gardner, D.M. Gassner, J.W. Glenn, X. Gu, M. Harvey, T. Hayes, L.T. Hoff, H. Huang, P.F. Ingrassia, J.P. Jamilkowski, N. Kling, M. Lafky, J.S. Laster, C. Liu, Y. Luo, M. Mapes, A. Marusic, K. Mernick, R.J. Michnoff, M.G. Minty, C. Montag, J. Morris, C. Naylor, S. Nemsures, S. Polizzo, V. Ptitsyn, G. Robert-Demolaize, T. Roser, P. Sampson, J. Sandberg, V. Schoefer, C. Schultheiss, F. Severino, T. Shrey, K. Smith, D. Steski, S. Tepikian, P. Thieberger, D. Trbojevic, N. Tsoupas, J.E. Tuozzolo, B. Van Kuik, G. Wang, M. Wilinski, A. Zaltsman, K. Zeno, and S.Y. Zhang, "RHIC performance for FY2011 Au+Au heavy ion run", proceedings International Particle Accelerator Conference 2011, San Sebastian, Spain, pp. 1894-1896 (2011).
Beam operation: 05/02/2011 - 06/20/2011 [49 days total, 45 days for physics]
Run Coordinator: Greg Marr
Major accomplishments and events: changed frequency of Blue vertical stochastic cooling system to avoid cross-talk between Blue and Yellow vertical systems; Yellow longitudinal stochastic cooling kicker repaired (became stuck in Run-10); installed new horizontal stochastic cooling pick-up; 4 days setup to physics; 4 h store length; EBIS Au beam tested in Booster
Achieved beam parameters:
no of
bunches
ions/bunch
[109]
β*
[m]
rms emittance
[μm]
Lpeak
[cm-2s-1]
Lstore avg
[cm-2s-1]
Lweek
[nb-1]
111
1.30
0.75
2.5 → 1.7
50×1026
30×1026
1.0
injection: γ = 10.52
store: γ = 107.396



Total delivered integrated luminosities:
experiment
β*
[m]
luminosity
[nb-1]
luminosity
[rel. to Run-10]



PHENIX
0.75
4.97
1.0×



STAR
0.75
4.82
0.9×



Time in store: 59% of calendar time







Mode 2A: 197Au79+ on 197Au79+ at 9.8 GeV/nucleon particle energy [Run-11 Au-Au web site]
Summary paper: G. Marr, L. Ahrens, M. Bai, J. Beebe-Wang, I. Blackler, M. Blaskiewicz, J.M. Brennan, K.A. Brown, D. Bruno, J. Butler, C. Carlson, R. Connolly, T. D'Ottavio, K.A. Drees, A.V. Fedotov, W. Fischer, W. Fu, C.J. Gardner, D.M. Gassner, J.W. Glenn, X. Gu, M. Harvey, T. Hayes, L.T. Hoff, H. Huang, P.F. Ingrassia, J.P. Jamilkowski, N. Kling, M. Lafky, J.S. Laster, C. Liu, Y. Luo, M. Mapes, A. Marusic, K. Mernick, R.J. Michnoff, M.G. Minty, C. Montag, J. Morris, C. Naylor, S. Nemsures, S. Polizzo, V. Ptitsyn, G. Robert-Demolaize, T. Roser, P. Sampson, J. Sandberg, V. Schoefer, C. Schultheiss, F. Severino, T. Shrey, K. Smith, D. Steski, S. Tepikian, P. Thieberger, D. Trbojevic, N. Tsoupas, J.E. Tuozzolo, B. Van Kuik, G. Wang, M. Wilinski, A. Zaltsman, K. Zeno, and S.Y. Zhang, "RHIC performance for FY2011 Au+Au heavy ion run", proceedings International Particle Accelerator Conference 2011, San Sebastian, Spain, pp. 1894-1896 (2011).
Beam operation: 04/19/2011 - 05/02/2011 [13 days total, 10 days for physics]
Run Coordinator: Greg Marr
Major accomplishments and events: 3 days setup to physics; 35 min store length
Achieved beam parameters:
no of
bunches
ions/bunch
[109]
β*
[m]
rms emittance
[μm]
Lpeak
[cm-2s-1]
Lstore avg
[cm-2s-1]
Lweek
[μb-1]
111
0.9
2.5
2.5 → 2.5
8×1025
4×1025
15
injection: γ = 10.52
store: γ = 10.52



Total delivered integrated luminosities:s
experiment
β*
[m]
luminosity
[μb-1]
luminosity
[rel. to Run-2]



PHENIX
3.0
15.7
157x



STAR
2.5
17.5
175×



Time in store: 71% of calendar time







Mode 1: polarized p on polarized p at 249.9 GeV particle energy [Run-11 p-p web site]
Summary papers: H. Huang, L. Ahrens, I.G. Alekseev, E. Aschenauer, G. Atoian,   M. Bai, A. Bazilevsky, M. Blaskiewicz, J.M. Brennan,  K.A. Brown, D. Bruno, R. Connolly, A. Dion, T. D'Ottavio, K.A. Drees, W. Fischer, C.J. Gardner,  J.W. Glenn, X. Gu, M. Harvey, T. Hayes, L. Hoff, R.L. Hulsart, J.S. Laster, C. Liu, Y. Luo, W.W. MacKay, Y. Makdisi, G.J. Marr, A. Marusic, F. Meot, K. Mernick, R.J. Michnoff, M.G. Minty, C. Montag, J. Morris, S. Nemesure, A. Poblaguev, V. Ptitsyn, V. Ranjbar, G. Robert-Demolaize, T. Roser, B. Schmidtke, V. Schoefer, F. Severino, D. Smirnov, K. Smith, D. Steski, D. Svirida, S. Tepikian, D. Trbojevic, N. Tsoupas, J.E. Tuozzolo, G. Wang, M. Wilinski, K. Yip, A. Zaltsman, A. Zelenski, K. Zeno, and S.Y. Zhang, "RHIC polarized proton operation and highlights",   proceedings International Particle Accelerator Conference 2011, San Sebastian, Spain, pp. 1888-1890 (2011).
H. Huang, L. A. Ahrens, E.C. Aschenauer, G. Atoian, M. Bai, A. Bazilevsky, J. Beebe-Wang, M. Blaskiewicz, J.M. Brennan, K.A. Brown, D. Bruno, R. Connolly, T. D'Ottavio, A. Dion, K.A. Drees, W. Fischer, C.J. Gardner, J.W. Glenn, X. Gu, M. Harvey, T. Hayes, L.T. Hoff, R.L. Hulsart, J.S. Laster, C. Liu, Y. Luo, W.W. MacKay, Y. Makdisi, M. Mapes, G.J. Marr, A. Marusic, F. Méot, K. Mernick, R.J. Michnoff, M.G. Minty, C. Montag, J. Morris, S. Nemesure, A. Poblaguev, V. Ptitsyn, V.H. Ranjbar, G. Robert-Demolaize, T. Roser, W.B. Schmidke, V. Schoefer, F. Severino, D. Smirnov, K.S. Smith, D. Steski, S. Tepikian, D. Trbojevic, N. Tsoupas, J.E. Tuozzolo, G. Wang, M. Wilinski, K. Yip, A. Zaltsman, A. Zelenski, K. Zeno, S.Y. Zhang, I.G. Alekseev, D. Svirida, "RHIC polarized proton operation",  proceedings of the 2011 Particle Accelerator Conference, NY, New York, USA, pp. 41-45 (2011).
Beam operation: 01/08/2011 - 04/19/2011 [109 days total, 68 days for physics]
Run Coordinator: Haixin Huang
Major accomplishments and events: EBIS under commissioning; AGS surveyed and adjusted horizontally; RHIC surveyed and adjusted vertically; new auto transformer in Blue to reduce flattop-to-ramp MMPS glitches; Yellow snake in sector 9 installed after repair (was removed for Run-10);  inserts installed (19 pieces, each 12.7 cm long) in both beam dump beam pipes to better shield Q4 from secondary particles; moved 2 common storage cavities to sector 3 and installed 2 more common cavities there (now have 5 storage cavities per ring, none common); remaining 2 common cavities are now designated for 9 MHz rf system (common to both rings, for proton operation only, movable shield can be inserted for heavy ion operation); 1 bouncer cavity installed in each ring as a longitudinal damper; increased current limit on IR6 and IR8 tq magnets from 100 A to 140 A to allow for lower β*; lowered γtr a injection by 0.5; after fire in AGS Access Control System on 11/09/2011 a new ACS had to be constructed for the run; all ramps with tune and coupling feedback; vertical tune on ramp near 2/3 to preserve polarization; RHIC CNI polarimeters upgraded with new electronics (mitigates rate dependence); radial loop on ramp with input from all horizontal BPMs; orbit feedback on every ramp operational (ver rms of 10 μm, radius and hor rms of 100 μm); fast emittance growth in Blue ring (was intermittently observed in 2007 and 2009) caused by dump kicker thyratron module B delayed physics; 30 days from both rings cold to physics (7 days longer than planned, had 6 snow days during start-up); first use of octupoles on proton ramps to reduce likelyhood of instabilities (-3 m-3 from after snapback to flattop); AGS tune jump system used for physics stores (about 5% more polarization); first operational use of 10 Hz orbit feedback in store; noise source of transverse origin leads to longitudinal emittance growth at injection with 9 MHz system (effect is of varying strength and not understood); breaker trip on 03/07/11 lead to refrigerator shut-off and helium venting in 2:00 and 6:00 service buildings, operation re-established on 03/17/11 - 219h downtime; power cable failure shut-down most of AGS equipment - 78h downtime; reduced IP2 (AnDY) crossing angle from 2.0 to zero; first use of beta-beat correction in operation; repeated problems with remote log-in; raising vertical tunes by 0.002 after going into collisions raises luminosity lifetime substantially; first use of collimation on ramp with continuous set point changes; down ramp with polarized beam from 250 GeV to 100 GeV with 109x109 bunches; 9 MHz rf system breaks before runs end holding down intensity and luminosity; first H-jet polarization measurement at injection (large error)
Achieved beam parameters:
no of
bunches
ions/bunch
[109]
β*
[m]
rms emittance
[μm]
Lpeak
[cm-2s-1]
Lstore avg
[cm-2s-1]
Lweek
[pb-1]
109
165
0.6
4.0 → 4.0
145×1030
90×1030
25
Average store polarization: 48% in Blue, 48% in Yellow (online H-jet measurements)*
Polarization at injection: (60±4)% in Blue and (70±4)% in Yellow with both beams,  (54±4)% with Blue beam only (offline H-jet measurements)*
injection: γ = 25.397
store: γ = 266.336, Gγ = 477.5


Total delivered integrated luminosities:
experiment
β*
[m]
luminosity
[pb-1]
luminosity
[rel. to Run-9]



PHENIX
0.61
89.9
1.6×
predominantly longitudinal polarization
STAR
0.72
68.9
1.3×
predominantly vertical polarization
AnDY
3.0
6.8

approved test for future experiment
Time in store: 37% of calendar time (46% excluding 219h dowtime due to refrigerator shut-off, and 78h due to power cable failure)














Run-10
CY2009/10
FY2010
Retreat at end of Run-10, 06/30/2010 - 07/02/2010, Bellport [Retreat web site]
Mode 1F: 197Au79+ on 197Au79+ at 2.5 GeV/nucleon particle energy [Run-10 Au-Au web site]
Summary paper: C. Montag, T. Satogata, L.A. Ahrens, M. Bai, J. Beebe-Wang, I. Blackler, M. Blaskiewicz, J.M. Brennan, K.A. Brown, D. Bruno, J.J. Butler, C. Carlson, R. Connolly, T. D'Ottavio, K.A. Drees, W. Fischer, W. Fu, D.M. Gassner, M. Harvey, T. Hayes, H. Huang, R.L. Hulsart, P.F. Ingrassia, A. Jain, N.A. Kling, M. Lafky, J.S. Laster, R.C. Lee, Y. Luo, W.W. MacKay, M. Mapes, G.J. Marr, A. Marusic, K. Mernick, R.J. Michnoff, M.G. Minty, J. Morris, C. Naylor, S. Nemesure, F.C. Pilat, V. Ptitsyn, G. Robert-Demolaize, T. Roser, P. Sampson, V. Schoefer, C. Schultheiss, F. Severino, T.C. Shrey, K.S. Smith, S. Tepikian, P. Thieberger, D. Trbojevic, N. Tsoupas, J.E. Tuozzolo, M. Wilinski, A. Zaltsman, K. Zeno, and S.Y. Zhang, "Experience with low-energy gold-gold operations in RHIC during FY2010", BNL-96440-2011-IR, C-A/AP/435 (2011).
Beam operation: 06/07/2010 - 06/08/2010 [29 h total, no physics]
Run Coordinator: Todd Satogata
Major accomplishments and events: harmonic number h = 387; attempted to inject into machine in which the hysteresis cycle was stopped on down ramp (reduces 10-pole errors in dipoles from 6 to 1.5 units but increases 6-pole errors from -7 to 42 units), but transfer function change by about 1% which could not be corrected in the time available; large synchrotron tune of 0.02 (synchrotron frequency of 1.7 kHz with 400 kV gap voltage); unbunched peak intensities of 0.2×109; bunched beam with peak intensitites of 0.03×109, 60% of which decays with 4 s, the other 40% with 40 s; strong decoherence of 10-20 turns makes good tune measurements impossible; small mommentum and transverse apertures; difficult regulation of AGS and AtR power supplies; large (expected) losses at AtR stripping foil; uncertainty of RHIC magnet transfer functions and associated mismatch between machine/model; not possible to store collider grade beams
Achieved beam parameters:
no of
bunches
ions/bunch
[109]
β*
[m]
rms emittance
[μm]
Lpeak
[cm-2s-1]
Lstore avg
[cm-2s-1]
Lweek
[μb-1]
1
0.02
10
(not measured)
injection: γ = 2.68
store: γ = 2.68










Mode 1E: 197Au79+ on 197Au79+ at 5.75 GeV/nucleon particle energy [Run-10 Au-Au web site]
Summary paper: C. Montag, T. Satogata, L.A. Ahrens, M. Bai, J. Beebe-Wang, I. Blackler, M. Blaskiewicz, J.M. Brennan, K.A. Brown, D. Bruno, J.J. Butler, C. Carlson, R. Connolly, T. D'Ottavio, K.A. Drees, W. Fischer, W. Fu, D.M. Gassner, M. Harvey, T. Hayes, H. Huang, R.L. Hulsart, P.F. Ingrassia, A. Jain, N.A. Kling, M. Lafky, J.S. Laster, R.C. Lee, Y. Luo, W.W. MacKay, M. Mapes, G.J. Marr, A. Marusic, K. Mernick, R.J. Michnoff, M.G. Minty, J. Morris, C. Naylor, S. Nemesure, F.C. Pilat, V. Ptitsyn, G. Robert-Demolaize, T. Roser, P. Sampson, V. Schoefer, C. Schultheiss, F. Severino, T.C. Shrey, K.S. Smith, S. Tepikian, P. Thieberger, D. Trbojevic, N. Tsoupas, J.E. Tuozzolo, M. Wilinski, A. Zaltsman, K. Zeno, and S.Y. Zhang, "Experience with low-energy gold-gold operations in RHIC during FY2010", BNL-96440-2011-IR, C-A/AP/435 (2011).
Beam operation: 05/27/2010 - 06/07/2010 [11 days total, 10 for physics]
Run Coordinator: Greg Marr, Angelika Drees, Todd Satogata
Major accomplishments and events: harmonic number h = 363, no collisions at PHENIX; 16 h for setup to physics; β*= 20 m in IP2 (IPMs) and IP10 (abort), β*= 6 m in IP6 (STAR), β*= 10 m in all other IPs incl. IP8 (PHENIX); polarity of half of defocusing sexupoles reversed; octupoles on for lifetime improvement; bunch length growing; 20 min store length
Achieved beam parameters: 
no of
bunches
ions/bunch
[109]
β*
[m]
rms emittance
[μm]
Lpeak
[cm-2s-1]
Lstore avg
[cm-2s-1]
Lweek
[μb-1]
111
1.1
6.0
2.5 → 2.5
3.3×1025
1.5×1025
5.0
injection: γ = 6.175
store: γ = 6.175



Total delivered integrated luminosities:
experiment β*
[m]
luminosity
[μb-1]




PHENIX
10.0




STAR
6.0
7.82




Time in store: 66% of calendar time







Mode 1D: 197Au79+ on 197Au79+ at 3.85 GeV/nucleon particle energy [Run-10 Au-Au web site]
Summary paper: C. Montag, T. Satogata, L.A. Ahrens, M. Bai, J. Beebe-Wang, I. Blackler, M. Blaskiewicz, J.M. Brennan, K.A. Brown, D. Bruno, J.J. Butler, C. Carlson, R. Connolly, T. D'Ottavio, K.A. Drees, W. Fischer, W. Fu, D.M. Gassner, M. Harvey, T. Hayes, H. Huang, R.L. Hulsart, P.F. Ingrassia, A. Jain, N.A. Kling, M. Lafky, J.S. Laster, R.C. Lee, Y. Luo, W.W. MacKay, M. Mapes, G.J. Marr, A. Marusic, K. Mernick, R.J. Michnoff, M.G. Minty, J. Morris, C. Naylor, S. Nemesure, F.C. Pilat, V. Ptitsyn, G. Robert-Demolaize, T. Roser, P. Sampson, V. Schoefer, C. Schultheiss, F. Severino, T.C. Shrey, K.S. Smith, S. Tepikian, P. Thieberger, D. Trbojevic, N. Tsoupas, J.E. Tuozzolo, M. Wilinski, A. Zaltsman, K. Zeno, and S.Y. Zhang, "Experience with low-energy gold-gold operations in RHIC during FY2010", BNL-96440-2011-IR, C-A/AP/435 (2011).
Beam operation: 04/22/2010 - 05/27/2010 [34 days total, 32 for physics]
Run Coordinator: Todd Satogata, Angelika Drees
Major accomplishments and events: first physics operation below nominal injection regidity; harmonic number h = 369; 49 h for setup; β*= 20 m in IP2 (IPMs) and IP10 (abort), initial β*= 10 m in IP6 (STAR) then reduced to β*= 6 m, β*= 10 m in all other IPs incl. IP8 (PHENIX); polarity of half of defocusing sexupoles reversed (in final configuration) to make defocusing sextupoles in effect bipolar; beam losses at Yellow injection kicker lead to vacuum leak (like Au beam losses in AGS in 2007); gap cleaner running to minimize losses in uncontrolled areas; octupoles on for lifetime improvement; losses in AtR limit injected intensity and thereby store length (not possible to go to shorter stores); bunch length shrinking; 10 min store length
Achieved beam parameters:
no of
bunches
ions/bunch
[109]
β*
[m]
rms emittance
[μm]
Lpeak
[cm-2s-1]
Lstore avg
[cm-2s-1]
Lweek
[μb-1]
111
0.5
6.0
3.3 → 3.3
3.1×1024
1.25×1024 0.50
injection: γ = 4.135
store: γ = 4.135


Total delivered integrated luminosities:
experiment β*
[m]
luminosity
[μb-1]




PHENIX
10.0
1.75



STAR
10.0 / 6.0
2.48



Time in store: 55% of calendar time







Mode 1C: 197Au79+ on 197Au79+ at 19.5 GeV/nucleon particle energy [Run-10 Au-Au web site]
Summary paper: K.A. Drees, L. A. Ahrens, M. Bai, J. Beebe-Wang, I. Blackler, M. Blaskiewicz, J.M. Brennan, K.A. Brown, D. Bruno, J.J. Butler, C. Carlson, R. Connolly, T. D'Ottavio, W. Fischer, W. Fu, D.M. Gassner, M. Harvey, T. Hayes, H. Huang, R.L. Hulsart, P.F. Ingrassia, N.A. Kling, M. Lafky, J.S. Laster, R.C. Lee, V. Litvinenko, Y. Luo, W.W. MacKay, M. Mapes, G.J. Marr, A. Marusic, K. Mernick, R.J. Michnoff, M.G. Minty, C. Montag, J. Morris, C. Naylor, S. Nemesure, F.C. Pilat, V. Ptitsyn, G. Robert-Demolaize, T. Roser, P. Sampson, T. Satogata, V. Schoefer, C. Schultheiss, F. Severino, T.C. Shrey, K.S. Smith, S. Tepikian, P. Thieberger, D. Trbojevic, N. Tsoupas, J.E. Tuozzolo, M. Wilinski, A. Zaltsman, K. Zeno, and S.Y. Zhang, "Medium Energy Heavy Ion Operations at RHIC", proceedings of the 2011 Particle Accelerator Conference, New York, NY, USA, pp. 2220-2222 (2011).
Beam operation: 04/08/2010 - 04/22/2010 [14 days total, 13 for physics]
Run Coordinators: Kevin Brown, Todd Satogata, Angelika Drees
Major accomplishments and events: 19 h for setup to physics; first operational use of simultaneous orbit, tune, coupling, and chromaticity feedback for ramp development; operation below transition; 197 MHz storage rf system operated at lowest frequency to date, no stochastic cooling; 4 h store length
Achieved beam parameters:
no of
bunches
ions/bunch
[109]
β*
[m]
rms emittance
[μm]
Lpeak
[cm-2s-1]
Lstore avg
[cm-2s-1]
Lweek
[μb-1]
111
1.3
3.0
3.3 → 5.8
2.2×1026
1.3×1026
50
injection: γ = 10.520 store: γ = 20.942


Total delivered integrated luminosities:
experiment β*
[m]
luminosity
[μb-1]




PHENIX
3.0
107




STAR
3.0
99




Time in store: 82% of calendar time







Mode 1B: 197Au79+ on 197Au79+ at 31.2 GeV/nucleon particle energy [Run-10 Au-Au web site]
Summary paper: K.A. Drees, L. A. Ahrens, M. Bai, J. Beebe-Wang, I. Blackler, M. Blaskiewicz, J.M. Brennan, K.A. Brown, D. Bruno, J.J. Butler, C. Carlson, R. Connolly, T. D'Ottavio, W. Fischer, W. Fu, D.M. Gassner, M. Harvey, T. Hayes, H. Huang, R.L. Hulsart, P.F. Ingrassia, N.A. Kling, M. Lafky, J.S. Laster, R.C. Lee, V. Litvinenko, Y. Luo, W.W. MacKay, M. Mapes, G.J. Marr, A. Marusic, K. Mernick, R.J. Michnoff, M.G. Minty, C. Montag, J. Morris, C. Naylor, S. Nemesure, F.C. Pilat, V. Ptitsyn, G. Robert-Demolaize, T. Roser, P. Sampson, T. Satogata, V. Schoefer, C. Schultheiss, F. Severino, T.C. Shrey, K.S. Smith, S. Tepikian, P. Thieberger, D. Trbojevic, N. Tsoupas, J.E. Tuozzolo, M. Wilinski, A. Zaltsman, K. Zeno, and S.Y. Zhang, "Medium Energy Heavy Ion Operations at RHIC", proceedings of the 2011 Particle Accelerator Conference, New York, NY, USA, pp. 2220-2222 (2011).
Beam operation: 03/18/2010 - 04/08/2010 [21 days total, 20 for physics]
Run Coordinators: Kevin Brown, Todd Satogata, Angelika Drees
Major accomplishments and events: 32 h for setup to physics; first operational use of simultaneous orbit, tune and coupling feedback for ramp developement; all storage cavities used except X3 and X5 (momentum spread too high); no stochastic cooling; 4 h store length
Achieved beam parameters:
no of
bunches
ions/bunch
[109]
β*
[m]
rms emittance
[μm]
Lpeak
[cm-2s-1]
Lstore avg
[cm-2s-1]
Lweek
[μb-1]
111
1.2
2.5
3.0 → 4.5
4.5×1026
3.0×1026
110
injection: γ = 10.520 store: γ = 33.507



Total delivered integrated luminosities:
experiment
β*
[m]
luminosity
[μb-1]
luminosity
[rel. to Run-4]



PHENIX
2.5
281
12.9×


STAR
2.5
263
12.7×


Time in store: 68% of calendar time







Mode 1A: 197Au79+ on 197Au79+ at 100.0 GeV/nucleon particle energy [Run-10 Au-Au web site]
Summary paper: K.A. Brown, L. Ahrens, M. Bai, J. Beebe-Wang, M. Blaskiewicz, J.M. Brennan, D. Bruno, C. Carlson, R. Connolly, R. De Maria, T. D'Ottavio, A. Drees, W. Fischer, W. Fu, C.J. Gardner, D.M. Gassner, J.W. Glenn, Y. Hao, M. Harvey, T. Hayes, L.T. Hoff, H. Huang, J.S. Laster, R.C. Lee, V.N. Litvinenko, Y. Luo, W.W. MacKay, M. Mapes, G.J. Marr, A. Marusic, K. Mernick, R. Michnoff, M. Minty, C. Montag, J. Morris, S. Nemesure, B. Oerter, F.C. Pilat, V. Ptitsyn, G. Robert-Demolaize, T. Roser, T. Russo, P. Sampson, J. Sandberg, T. Satogata, V. Schoefer, C. Schultheiss, F. Severino, K. Smith, D. Steski, S. Tepikian, C. Theisen, P. Thieberger, D. Trbojevic, N. Tsoupas, J. Tuozzolo, G. Wang, M. Wilinski, A. Zaltsman, K. Zeno, and S.Y. Zhang, "RHIC Performance for FY10 200 GeV Au+Au Heavy Ion Run", proceedings of the 2010 International Particle Accelerator Conference, Kyoto, Japan, pp. 507-509 (2010).
Beam operation: 12/07/2009 - 03/18/2010 [101 days total, 76 for physics]
Run Coordinators: Kevin Brown, Todd Satogata, Angelika Drees
Major accomplishments and events: Yellow 10 o'clock snake replaced by dummy to allow for repair (snake not used in Au operation); start-up and ramp-up of 3 1/2 weeks (1 1/2 weeks longer than planned, needed 1 week to finish Yellow vacuum work after both rings were at 4 K); IBS suppression lattice in both rings; separation of γtr by 1.2 s; 2 mrad crossing angle (beam-to-beam) in IPs without collision; first operational use of new low level RF in RHIC; new auto transformer in Yellow to reduce flattop-to-ramp MMPS glitches; tune and coupling feedback on every development ramp; first successful ramp with simultaneous orbit, tune and coupling feedback; first operational use of collimation on the ramp; first use of Yellow dipole feedback (with radius signal from rf BPMs) at transition; large chromatic abberations - particularly in Yellow - prevent rebucketing with β*= 0.6 m (setpoint) and result in raising it to β*= 0.7 m; Yellow tunes close to and above 0.2 (Blue tunes close to and below 0.25); first operational use of Yellow longitudinal stochastic cooling upgraded with microwave link (01/14/2010), first operational use of Blue longitudinal stochastic cooling (02/02/2010), first use of Yellow (01/14/2010) and Blue (01/25/2010) vertical stochastic cooling; test of 1 Hz orbit feedback (ramp and store); test of 10 Hz orbit feedback (store); luminosity limited by beam loading at rebucketing leading to debunching not transition instabilities as in previous runs; reversed all vertical (01/07/10) and half of the horizontal (01/21/10) BPM offsets (were incorrect previously)
Achieved beam parameters:
no of
bunches
ions/bunch
[109]
β*
[m]
rms emittance
[μm]
Lpeak
[cm-2s-1]
Lstore avg
[cm-2s-1]
Lweek
[μb-1]
111
1.1
0.75
2.8 → 3.3
40×1026
20×1026
650
injection: γ = 10.520
store: γ = 107.396


Total delivered integrated luminosities:
experiment
β*
[m]
luminosity
[nb-1]
luminosity
[rel. to Run-7]



PHENIX
0.75
5.01
1.5×


STAR
0.75
5.24
1.7×


Time in store: 53% of calendar time














Run-9
CY2008/09
FY2009
Retreat at end of Run-9, 07/15/2009 - 07/17/2009, Montauk [Retreat web site]
Mode 1C: polarized p on polarized p at 100.2 GeV particle energy for pp2pp [Run-9 p-p web site]
Summary paper: C. Montag, L. Ahrens, M. Bai, J. Beebe-Wang, M. Blaskiewicz, J.M. Brennan, K.A. Brown, D. Bruno, R. Connolly, T. D’Ottavio, A. Drees, A.V. Fedotov, W. Fischer, G. Ganetis, C. Gardner, J. Glenn, H. Hahn, T. Hayes, H. Huang, P. Ingrassia, D.A. Kayran, J. Kewisch, R.C. Lee, A.U. Luccio, Y. Luo, W.W. MacKay, Y. Makdisi, N. Malitsky, G. Marr, A. Marusic, R. Michnoff, M. Minty, J. Morris, B. Oerter, F. Pilat, P. Pile, V. Ptitsyn, G. Robert-Demolaize, T. Roser, T. Russo, T. Satogata, V. Schoefer, C. Schultheiss, M. Sivertz, K. Smith, S. Tepikian, P. Thieberger, D. Trbojevic, N. Tsoupas, J. Tuozzolo, A. Zaltsman, A. Zelenski, K. Zeno, S.Y. Zhang, "RHIC performance as a 100 GeV polarized proton collider in Run-9", proceedings of the 2010 International Particle Accelerator Conference, Kyoto, Japan (2010).
Beam operation: 06/29/2009 - 07/04/2009 (5 days total, 3.5 days for physics)
Run Coordinator: Christoph Montag (AGS coordinator: Haixin Huang)
Major accomplishments and events: first operation with β* = 20 m; Yellow snake in sector 9 removed after run for repair of ground current
Achieved beam parameters:
no of
bunches
ions/bunch
[109]
β*
[m]
rms emittance
[μm]
Lpeak
[cm-2s-1]
Lstore avg
[cm-2s-1]
Lweek
[pb-1]
90/64 colliding
90/88 colliding
50
20
1.0
2.5 → 3.3
0.3×1030
6×1030
0.2×1030
4×1030
0.1 pp2pp
1.5 PHENIX
Average store polarization: 62% in Blue, 63% in Yellow (online H-jet measurements)*
injection: γ = 25.379 store: γ = 106.831, Gγ = 191.5


Total delivered integrated luminosities:
experiment
β*
[m]
luminosity
[nb-1]




PHENIX
1.0
593
vertical polarization


pp2pp / STAR 20
25
vertical polarization


Time in store: 67% of calendar time (only 4 stores between 10 h and 17 h length)







Mode 1B: polarized p on polarized p at 100.2 GeV particle energy [Run-9 p-p web site]
Summary paper: C. Montag, L. Ahrens, M. Bai, J. Beebe-Wang, M. Blaskiewicz, J.M. Brennan, K.A. Brown, D. Bruno, R. Connolly, T. D’Ottavio, A. Drees, A.V. Fedotov, W. Fischer, G. Ganetis, C. Gardner, J. Glenn, H. Hahn, T. Hayes, H. Huang, P. Ingrassia, D.A. Kayran, J. Kewisch, R.C. Lee, A.U. Luccio, Y. Luo, W.W. MacKay, Y. Makdisi, N. Malitsky, G. Marr, A. Marusic, R. Michnoff, M. Minty, J. Morris, B. Oerter, F. Pilat, P. Pile, V. Ptitsyn, G. Robert-Demolaize, T. Roser, T. Russo, T. Satogata, V. Schoefer, C. Schultheiss, M. Sivertz, K. Smith, S. Tepikian, P. Thieberger, D. Trbojevic, N. Tsoupas, J. Tuozzolo, A. Zaltsman, A. Zelenski, K. Zeno, S.Y. Zhang, "RHIC performance as a 100 GeV polarized proton collider in Run-9", proceedings of the 2010 International Particle Accelerator Conference, Kyoto, Japan (2010).
Beam operation: 04/15/2009 - 06/29/2009 (74 days total, 69 days for physics)
Run Coordinator: Christoph Montag (AGS coordinator: Haixin Huang)
Major accomplishments and events: first tests of AGS horizontal quadrupole jump system to increase polarization; tests  of new low level rf system; test of transverse stochastic cooling in Yellow vertical plane with low intensity proton bunch; tests of dedicated spin flipper in Blue ring; all RHIC service buildings with A/C; first operational use of 10- and 12-poles; scrubbing attempt at injection (6 Blue and 8 Yellow high-intensity fill attempts) with 0.01 K cryo temperature rise — may have raised the instability threshold at transition in following heavy ion Run-10
Achieved beam parameters:
no of
bunches
ions/bunch
[109]
β*
[m]
rms emittance
[μm]
Lpeak
[cm-2s-1]
Lstore avg
[cm-2s-1]
Lweek
[pb-1]
109
135
0.7
2.5 → 3.3
50×1030 28×1030 8.3
Average store polarization: 56% in Blue, 57% in Yellow (online H-jet measurements)*
injection: γ = 25.379 store: γ = 106.831, Gγ = 191.5


Total delivered integrated luminosities:
experiment
β*
[m]
luminosity
[pb-1]
luminosity
[rel. to Run-6]



PHENIX
0.7
60.7
1.4× longitudinal polarization
STAR
0.7
53.5
1.2× longitudinal polarization
Time in store: 54% of calendar time







Mode 1A: polarized p on polarized p at 249.9 GeV particle energy [Run-9 p-p web site]
Summary paper: M. Bai, L. Ahrens, J. Alessi, G. Atonian, A. Bazilevsky, J. Beebe-Wang,M. Blaskiewicz, J. M. Brennan, K. Brown, D. Bruno, J. Butler, R. Connolly, T. D’Ottavio, A. Drees, W. Fischer, G. Ganetis, C. Gardner, R. Gill, J. Glenn, T. Hayes, Y. Hao, H. Huang, R. Hulsart, D. Kayran, J. Laster, R. Lee, A. Luccio, Y. Luo, W. W. MacKay, Y. Makdisi, G. Marr, A. Marusic, K. Mernick, G. McIntyre, R. Michnoff, M. Minty, C. Montag, B. Morozov, J. Morris, P. Oddo, B. Oerter, F. Pilat, V. Ptitsyn, D. Raparia, G. Robert-Demolaize, T. Roser, T. Russo, T. Satogata, V. Schoefer, K. Smith, D. N. Svirida, D. Trbojevic, N. Tsoupas, J. Tuozzolo, G. Wang, M. Wilinski, S. Tepikian, A. Zaltsman, A. Zelenski, K. Zeno, S. Y. Zhang, "First polarized proton collisions at a beam energy of 250 GeV in RHIC", proceedings of the 2009 Particle Accelerator Conference, Vacouver, BC, Canada (2009).
Beam operation: 02/07/2009 - 04/15/09 (67 days total, 29 days for physics)
Run Coordinator: Mei Bai   (AGS coordinator: Haixin Huang)
Major accomplishments and events: first collision of polarized proton beam to 250 GeV; LEBT/MEBT modified to reduce emittance growth through better matching into Linac; modification of Booster injection (smaller β at injection foil) to reduce emittance growth;  new AGS main magnet power supply transformer; re-alignment of magnets near snakes for better angle control, setup in 5 weeks (2 weeks longer than planned), 2 mrad crossing angle (beam-to-beam) in IP2 and IP10 to reduce number of DX training quenches (6 DX training quenches);  test of new 9 MHz rf system (single cavity for both rings) for acceleration (not yet usable because Yellow beam cannot respond to diples main ps switch-over from flattop to ramp supply and back); use of main quadrupole ramp ps at injection already; first use of 4-knob nonlinear chromaticity correction (unlike HARMON it also reduces resonance driving terms); upgraded CNI polarimeters in RHIC with number of targets doubled; triplet 10 Hz cold mass measurements and test of active cold mass damping; use of tune and coupling feedback on all development ramps.
Achieved beam parameters:
no of
bunches
ions/bunch
[109]
β*
[m]
rms emittance
[μm]
Lpeak
[cm-2s-1]
Lstore avg
[cm-2s-1]
Lweek
[pb-1]
109
110
0.7
3.0 → 3.8
85×1030 55×1030 18.4
Average store polarization: 33% in Blue, 36% in Yellow (online H-jet measurement)*
injection: γ = 25.379 store: γ = 266.336, Gγ = 477.5


Total delivered integrated luminosities:
experiment
β*
[m]
luminosity
[pb-1]




PHENIX
0.7
57.8
primarily with longtudinal polarization

STAR
0.7
52.6
primarily with longtudinal polarization
Time in store: 53% of calendar time














Run-8
CY2007/08
FY2008



Retreat at end of Run-8, 03/31/2008 - 04/02/2008, Montauk [Retreat web site] [Summary]
Mode 3B: 197Au79+ on 197Au79+ at 2.5 GeV/nucleon particle energy
Summary presentation (at RHIC Retreat): T. Satogata, "Run-8: Low energy" 
Beam operation: 03/11/2008 - 03/12/2008 (15 h)
Run Coordinator: Todd Satogata
Major accomplishments and events: stored some beam in Yellow ring with γ = 2.685; unbunched with peak intensity 0.05×109 and lifetime of 2 min; single bunch beam with peak intensity 0.01×109 and lifetime of 2 s; orbit correction very difficult







Mode 3A: 197Au79+ on 197Au79+ at 4.6 GeV/nucleon particle energy
Summary paper:
Beam operation: 03/10/2008 - 03/11/2008 (31 h)
Run Coordinator: Todd Satogata
Major accomplishments: STAR experiment collected a few thousand events for physics
Achieved beam parameters:
no of
bunches
ions/bunch
[109]
β*
[m]
rms emittance
[μm]
Lpeak
[cm-2s-1]
Lstore avg
[cm-2s-1]
Lweek
[μb-1]
56
0.4
10
6.7 → 10
3.5×1023 1.2×1023
injection: γ = 4.931 store: γ = 4.931


Time in store: (very short run)







Mode 2: polarized p on polarized p at 100.2 GeV particle energy [Run-8 p-p web site]
Summary paper: C. Montag, N. Abreu, L. Ahrens, M. Bai, D. Barton, A. Bazilevski, J. Beebe-Wang, M. Blaskiewicz, J.M. Brennan, K.A. Brown, D. Bruno, G. Bunce, R. Calaga, P. Cameron, R. Connolly, T. D'Otavio, A. Drees, A.V. Fedotov, W. Fischer, G. Ganetis, C.J. Gardner, J.W. Glenn, T. Hayes, H. Huang, P. Ingrassia, D.A. Kayran, J. Kewisch, R.C. Lee, V.N. Litvinenko, A.U. Luccio, Y. Luo, W.W. MacKay, Y. Makdisi, N. Malitsky, G. Marr, A. Marusic, R. Michnoff, J. Morris, B. Oerter, H. Okada, F. Pilat, P. Pile, G. Robert-Demolaize, T. Roser, T. Satogata, C. Schultheiss, M. Sivertz, K. Smith, S. Tepikian, D. Trbojevic, N. Tsoupas, J. Tuozzolo, A. Zaltsman, A. Zelenski, and S.Y. Zhang, "RHIC polarized proton performance in Run-8", proceedings of the 2008 European Particle Accelerator Conference, Genoa, Italy (2008).
Beam operation: 01/29/2008 - 03/10/2008 (41 days total, 24 days for physics)
Run Coordinator: Christoph Montag   (AGS coordinator: Haixin Huang)
Major accomplishments and events: nonlinear chromaticity correction; tested near integer working point in Blue (not used in operation due to large 10 Hz orbit oscillations in triplets); tested β*= 65 cm (not used in operation); test of 10- and 12-pole correctors to reduce background
Achieved beam parameters:
no of
bunches
ions/bunch
[109]
β*
[m]
rms emittance
[μm]
Lpeak
[cm-2s-1]
Lstore avg
[cm-2s-1]
Lweek
[pb-1]
109
150
1.0
3.3 → 4.2
35×1030 23×1030 7.5
Average store polarization: 50% in Blue, 40% in Yellow (final H-jet measurement)*
injection: γ = 25.379
store: γ = 106.831, Gγ = 191.5


Total delivered integrated luminosities:
experiment β*
[m]
luminosity
[pb-1]




PHENIX 1.0
19.2
predominantly vertical polarization
STAR 1.0
19.2
vertical polarization


Time in store: 60% of calendar time (no rotator ramps for most part of the run)







Mode 1: d at 100.7 GeV/nucleon on 197Au79+ at 100.0 GeV/nucleon particle energy [Run-8 d-Au web site]
d (deuteron) is the nucleus of the 2H (deuterium) atom.
Summary paper: C.J. Gardner, N.P. Abreu, L. Ahrens, J. Alessi, M. Bai, D. Barton, J. Beebe-Wang, M. Blaskiewicz, J.M. Brennan, K.A. Brown, D. Bruno, J. Butler, P. Cameron, C. Carlson, R. Connolly, A. DellaPenna, T. D'Otavio, A. Drees, W. Fischer, W. Fu, G. Ganetis, J.W. Glenn, M. Harvey, T. Hayes, H. Huang, P. Ingrassia, J. Kewisch, R.C. Lee, V. Litvinenko, Y. Luo, W.W. MacKay, M. Mapes, G. Marr, A. Marusic, R. Michnoff, C. Montag, J. Morris, B. Oerter, F. Pilat, E. Pozdeyev, V. Ptitsyn, G. Robert-Demolaize, T. Roser, T. Russo, P. Sampson, J. Sandberg, T. Satogata, C. Schultheiss, F. Severino, K. Smith, D. Steski, S. Tepikian, Y. Than, P. Thieberger, D. Trbojevic, N. Tsoupas, J. Tuozzolo, A. Zaltsman, K.L. Zeno, and S.Y. Zhang, "Setup and performance of RHIC for the 2008 run with deuteron-gold collisions", proceedings of the 2008 European Particle Accelerator Conference, Genoa, Italy (2008).
Beam operation: 11/08/2007 - 01/28/2008 (80 days total, 63 days for physics)
Run Coordinator: Christopher (Kip) Gardner
Major accomplishments and events: increased length of NEG coated beam pipes by 56 m (to 532 m total); kept machine at liquid nitrogen temperature during the summer shutdown again; Blue ring cool-down from 100K to 4K in 10 days, Yellow in another 2 days; Yellow ring lattice for gold beam with higher tunes to reduce IBS (Blue ring has a bus problem that currently prevents higher tunes — not critical for deuterons); β* reduced to 0.85 m compared to 2 m in Run-3; periodic orbit corrections in store introduced (every 1/2 hour); service building 1004B with A/C; Au beam losses outside internal J10 dump lead to 3 vacuum leaks at L5, J17, and then I17
Achieved beam parameters:
no of
bunches
ions/bunch
[109]
β*
[m]
rms emittance
[μm]
Lpeak
[cm-2s-1]
Lstore avg
[cm-2s-1]
Lweek
[nb-1]
95
100 d / 1.0 Au
0.85
2.5 → 3.3
27×1028 13.5×1028 40
injection: γ = 11.150
store: γ = 107.396



Total delivered integrated luminosities:
experiment
β*
[m]
luminosity
[nb-1]
luminosity
[rel. to Run-3]



PHENIX
0.85
238
9.8×


STAR
0.89
199
10.1×


Time in store: 58% of calendar time














Run-7
CY2006/07
FY2007
Retreat at end of Run-7, 07/16/2007 - 07/17/2007, Two Trees Inn, Connecticut [Retreat web site] [Summary]
Mode 1B: 197Au79+ on 197Au79+ at 4.6 GeV/nucleon particle energy [Run-7 Au-Au web site]
Summary paper: T. Satogata, L. Ahrens, M. Bai, J.M. Brennan, D. Bruno, J.J. Butler, A. Drees, A.V. Fedotov, W. Fischer, M. Harvey, T. Hayes, W. Jappe, R.C. Lee, W.W. MacKay, G.J. Marr, R. Michnoff, B. Oerter, E. Pozdeyev, T. Roser, F. Severino, K. Smith, S. Tepikian, and N. Tsoupas, "RHIC challenges for low energy operations", proceedings of the 2007 Particle Accelerator Conference, Albuquerque, NM, USA (2007).
Beam operation: 06/06/2007 - 06/07/2007 (24 h total)
Run Coordinator: Todd Satogata
Major accomplishments and events: stored and collided Au beams at half the normal injection energy; measured luminosity; a few hundred events recorded by STAR
Achieved beam parameters:
no of
bunches
ions/bunch
[109]
β*
[m]
rms emittance
[μm]
Lpeak
[cm-2s-1]
Lstore avg
[cm-2s-1]
Lweek
[μb-1]
56
0.4
10.0
6.7 → 10
4×1023 0.6×1023
injection: γ = 4.931 store: γ = 4.931



Time in store: (test of low energy running)







Mode 1A: 197Au79+ on 197Au79+ at 100.0 GeV/nucleon particle energy [Run-7 Au-Au web site]
Summary paper: A. Drees, L. Ahrens, J. Alessi, M. Bai, D. Barton, J. Beebe-Wang, M. Blaskiewicz, J.M. Brennan, K.A. Brown, D. Bruno, J.J. Butler, R. Calaga, P. Cameron, R. Connolly, T. D'Ottavio, W. Fischer, W. Fu, G. Ganetis, J. Glenn, M. Harvey, T. Hayes, H.-C. Hseuh, H. Huang, J. Kewisch, R.C. Lee, V.N. Litvinenko, Y. Luo, W.W. MacKay, G.J. Marr, A. Marusic, R. Michnoff, C. Montag, J. Morris, B. Oerter, F.C. Pilat, V. Ptitsyn, T. Roser, J. Sandberg, T. Satogata, C. Schultheiss, F. Severino, K. Smith, S. Tepikian, D. Trbojevic, N. Tsoupas, J. Tuozzolo, A. Zaltsman, and S.Y. Zhang, "Summary of the RHIC performance during the FY07 heavy ion run", proceedings of the 2007 Particle Accelerator Conference, Albuquerque, NM, USA (2007).
Beam operation: 02/19/2007 - 06/26/07 (125 days total, 90 days for physics, excluding 1 day for Mode 1B)
Run Coordinator: Angelika Drees
Major accomplishments and events: kept machine at liquid nitrogen temperature during the summer shutdown, no DX training required; increased the total length of NEG coated beam pipes in warm regions by 45 m to 475 m; horizontal realignment in locations of large orbit corrector strength; 8 sextupole families per ring for nonlinear chromaticity correction (preparation for p, no operational benefit for Au); AGS operation with Au31+ instead of Au32+ in previous years (yields about 20% intensity gain); new BtA stripping foil (Al+glassy carbon instead of carbon) reduces bunch area at AGS injection from 0.40 eV.s/nucleon to 0.23 eV.s/nucleon; new AtR stripping foil (W instead of Al oxide) reduces intensity loss by about 4%; start-up/ramp-up in 2 weeks (1/2 less than planned); first use of beam scrubbing for operational purposes (2 hours at injection to alleviate dynamic pressure rise at transition); first operational use of orbit feedback at IP6 and IP8 (preparation for p, no operational benefit for Au); voltage dip from 300 kV to 150 kV at transition; first operational use of Yellow longitudinal stochastic cooling; NSRL and AGS operation concurrent with entire RHIC run
Achieved beam parameters (PHENIX/STAR):
no of
bunches
ions/bunch
[109]
β*
[m]
rms emittance
[μm]
Lpeak
[cm-2s-1]
Lstore avg
[cm-2s-1]
Lweek
[μb-1]
103
1.1
0.83/0.77
2.8 → 5.8
30×1026 12×1026 380
injection: γ = 10.520 store: γ = 107.396


Total delivered integrated luminosities:
experiment β*
[m]
luminosity
[μb-1]
luminosity
[rel. to Run-4]



PHENIX
0.85
3270
2.6×



STAR
0.85
3100
2.6×



MonoPole
5.0
610
experimental test apparatus at IP2
IP10
5.0
270
test of LHC luminostiy monitor at IP10
Time in store: 48% of calendar time














Run-6
CY2005/06
FY2006
Retreat at end of Run-6, 07/10/2006 - 07/12/2006, Shelter Island [Retreat web site] [Summary]
Mode 1D: polarized p on polarized p at 250.0 GeV particle energy [Run-6 p-p web site]
Summary paper: V. Ptitsyn, M. Bai, D. Barton, J. Beebe-Wang, M. Blaskiewicz, A. Bravar, J.M. Brennan, K.A. Brown, D. Bruno, G. Bunce, P. Cameron, R. Connolly, J. DeLong, T. D'Ottavio, A. Drees, A.V. Fedotov, W. Fischer, G. Ganetis, T. Hayes, H.-C. Hseuh, H. Huang, P. Ingrassia, D.A. Kayran, J. Kewisch, R.C. Lee, V.N. Litvinenko, Y. Luo, W.W. MacKay, Y. Makdisi, G.J. Marr, A. Marusic, R. Michnoff, C. Montag, J. Morris, T. Nicoletti, B. Oerter, F.C. Pilat, T. Roser, T. Russo, J. Sandberg, T. Satogata, C. Schultheiss, S. Tepikian, D. Trbojevic, N. Tsoupas, J. Tuozzolo, A. Zaltsman, A. Zelenski, K. Zeno. and S.Y. Zhang, "RHIC performance as polarized proton collider in Run-6", proceedings of the 2006 European Particle Accelerator Conference, Edinburgh, UK (2006).
Beam operation: 06/20/06 - 06/26/06 (6 days total, no physics operation)
Run Coordinator: Mei Bai   (AGS coordinator: Haixin Huang)
Major accomplishments: accelerated both beam to 250 GeV; 45% Blue beam polarization at store (no colliding beams)
Achieved beam parameters:
no of
bunches
ions/bunch
[109]
β*
[m]
rms emittance
[μm]
Lpeak
[cm-2s-1]
Lstore avg
[cm-2s-1]
Lweek
[pb-1]
28
90
1.5
4.2
Average store polarization: 45% in Blue, zero in Yellow
injection: γ = 25.379 store: γ = 266.477










Mode 1C: polarized p on polarized p at 31.2 GeV particle energy [Run-6 p-p web site]
Summary paper: V. Ptitsyn, M. Bai, D. Barton, J. Beebe-Wang, M. Blaskiewicz, A. Bravar, J.M. Brennan, K.A. Brown, D. Bruno, G. Bunce, P. Cameron, R. Connolly, J. DeLong, T. D'Ottavio, A. Drees, A.V. Fedotov, W. Fischer, G. Ganetis, T. Hayes, H.-C. Hseuh, H. Huang, P. Ingrassia, D.A. Kayran, J. Kewisch, R.C. Lee, V.N. Litvinenko, Y. Luo, W.W. MacKay, Y. Makdisi, G.J. Marr, A. Marusic, R. Michnoff, C. Montag, J. Morris, T. Nicoletti, B. Oerter, F.C. Pilat, T. Roser, T. Russo, J. Sandberg, T. Satogata, C. Schultheiss, S. Tepikian, D. Trbojevic, N. Tsoupas, J. Tuozzolo, A. Zaltsman, A. Zelenski, K. Zeno. and S.Y. Zhang, "RHIC performance as polarized proton collider in Run-6", proceedings of the 2006 European Particle Accelerator Conference, Edinburgh, UK (2006).
Beam operation: 06/05/06 - 06/20/06 (15 days total, 12 days for physics)
Run Coordinator: Vadim Ptitsyn   (AGS coordinator: Haixin Huang)
Major accomplishments and events: first use of spin rotators at low energy
Achieved beam parameters:
no of
bunches
ions/bunch
[109]
β*
[m]
rms emittance
[μm]
Lpeak
[cm-2s-1]
Lstore avg
[cm-2s-1]
Lweek
[pb-1]
111
90
3.0
3.3 → 5.0
2×1030 1×1030 0.22
Average store polarization: 50% in Blue, 49% in Yellow
injection: γ = 25.379
store: γ = 33.253


Total delivered integrated luminosities:
experiment β*
[m]
luminosity
[pb-1]




PHENIX
3.0
0.380
vertical and longitudinal polarization (about 50% each)
STAR
3.0
0.325
vertical polarization
BRAHMS
3.0
0.340
vertical polarization
Time in store: 50% of calendar time







Mode 1B: p on p at 11.25 GeV particle energy [Run-6 p-p web site
Summary paper: V. Ptitsyn, M. Bai, D. Barton, J. Beebe-Wang, M. Blaskiewicz, A. Bravar, J.M. Brennan, K.A. Brown, D. Bruno, G. Bunce, P. Cameron, R. Connolly, J. DeLong, T. D'Ottavio, A. Drees, A.V. Fedotov, W. Fischer, G. Ganetis, T. Hayes, H.-C. Hseuh, H. Huang, P. Ingrassia, D.A. Kayran, J. Kewisch, R.C. Lee, V.N. Litvinenko, Y. Luo, W.W. MacKay, Y. Makdisi, G.J. Marr, A. Marusic, R. Michnoff, C. Montag, J. Morris, T. Nicoletti, B. Oerter, F.C. Pilat, T. Roser, T. Russo, J. Sandberg, T. Satogata, C. Schultheiss, S. Tepikian, D. Trbojevic, N. Tsoupas, J. Tuozzolo, A. Zaltsman, A. Zelenski, K. Zeno. and S.Y. Zhang, "RHIC performance as polarized proton collider in Run-6", proceedings of the 2006 European Particle Accelerator Conference, Edinburgh, UK (2006).
Beam operation: 06/05/06 - 06/06/06 (25 h total)
Run Coordinator: Todd Satogata
Major accomplishments and events: first injection; storage and collision of beams with rigidity of approximately half the normal injection rigidity
Achieved beam parameters:
no of
bunches
ions/bunch
[109]
β*
[m]
rms emittance
[μm]
Lpeak
[cm-2s-1]
Lstore avg
[cm-2s-1]
Lweek
[pb-1]
28
75
10
5.0
1.7×1028 0.6×1028
Average store polarization: 41% in Blue, 32% in Yellow
injection: γ = 11.990
store: γ = 11.990



Time in store: (test for low energy ion collisions)







Mode 1A: polarized p on polarized p at 100.2 GeV particle energy [Run-6 p-p web site
Summary paper: V. Ptitsyn, M. Bai, D. Barton, J. Beebe-Wang, M. Blaskiewicz, A. Bravar, J.M. Brennan, K.A. Brown, D. Bruno, G. Bunce, P. Cameron, R. Connolly, J. DeLong, T. D'Ottavio, A. Drees, A.V. Fedotov, W. Fischer, G. Ganetis, T. Hayes, H.-C. Hseuh, H. Huang, P. Ingrassia, D.A. Kayran, J. Kewisch, R.C. Lee, V.N. Litvinenko, Y. Luo, W.W. MacKay, Y. Makdisi, G.J. Marr, A. Marusic, R. Michnoff, C. Montag, J. Morris, T. Nicoletti, B. Oerter, F.C. Pilat, T. Roser, T. Russo, J. Sandberg, T. Satogata, C. Schultheiss, S. Tepikian, D. Trbojevic, N. Tsoupas, J. Tuozzolo, A. Zaltsman, A. Zelenski, K. Zeno. and S.Y. Zhang, "RHIC performance as polarized proton collider in Run-6", proceedings of the 2006 European Particle Accelerator Conference, Edinburgh, UK (2006).
Beam operation: 02/07/06 - 06/05/06  (119 days total, 92 days for physics)
Run Coordinator: Vadim Ptitsyn   (AGS coordinator: Haixin Huang)
Major accomplishments and events: total of 430 m of NEG coated beam pipes installed in warm regions; pre-pumping in arcs lowered pressure to 10-6 - 10-7 Torr before cool-down; complete vertical re-alignment of both RHIC rings; STAR shielding installed; lowered injection energy to allow for better spin matching with the AGS cold snake; first operational use of the AGS cold snake; cool-down from 80 K to 4 K in 11 days (3 days less than planned); use of combined tune and coupling feedback for ramp development
Major disruption: machine was off for one week following an arc flash incident in a switch of the STAR magnet electrical system
Achieved beam parameters:
no of
bunches
ions/bunch
[109]
β*
[m]
rms emittance
[μm]
Lpeak
[cm-2s-1]
Lstore avg
[cm-2s-1]
Lweek
[pb-1]
111
135
1.0
3.0 → 3.8
28×1030 18×1030
6.5
Average store polarization: 52% in Blue, 57% in Yellow (final H-jet measurement)*
injection: γ = 25.379 store: γ = 106.831, Gγ = 191.5


Total delivered integrated luminosities:
experiment β*
[m]
luminosity
[pb-1]
luminosity
[rel. to Run-5]



PHENIX 1.0
43.6
3.6×
hor. and long. polarization
recorded number of 45.9 pb-1 reduced by 5% after Run-8 to account for single accidentals
STAR 1.0
44.9
3.7×
hor. and long. polarization
ecorded number of 47.3 pb-1 reduced by 5% after Run-8 to account for single accidentals
BRAHMS
10.0
0.1

vertical polarization, for Mode 1B preparation
Time in store: 46% of calendar time (50% excluding 1 week of downtime due to an arc flash incident)














Run-5
CY2004/05
FY2005
Retreat at end of Run-5, 06/15/2005 - 06/17/2005, Shelter Island [Retreat web site] [Summary]
Mode 2B: polarized p on polarized p at 204.9 GeV particle energy [Run-5 p-p web site]
Summary paper: M. Bai, T. Roser, L. Ahrens, I. G. Alekseev, J. Alessi, J. Beebe-Wang, M. Blaskiewicz, A. Bravar, J. M. Brennan, D. Bruno, G. Bunce, E. Courant, A. Drees, W. Fischer, C. Gardner, R. Gill, J. Glenn, W. Haeberli, H. Huang, O. Jinnouchi, J. Kewisch, A. Luccio, Y. Luo, I. Nakagawa, H. Okada, F. Pilat, W. W. MacKay, Y. Makdisi, C. Montag, V. Ptitsyn, T. Satgata, E. Stephenson, D. Svirida, S. Tepikian, D. Trbojevic, N. Tsoupas, T. Wise, A. Zelenski, K. Zeno, and S. Y. Zhang, "Polarized proton collisions at 205 GeV at RHIC", Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 174801 (2006).
Beam operation: 05/31/05 - 06/03/05 (4 days total, 2 stores for physics - primarily for PHOBOS)
Run Coordinator: Mei Bai
Major accomplishments and events: ramp setup for higher energy in 3 days; first acceleration and storage of polarized protons beyond 100 GeV
Achieved beam parameters:
no of
bunches
ions/bunch
[109]
β*
[m]
rms emittance
[μm]
Lpeak
[cm-2s-1]
Lstore avg
[cm-2s-1]
Lweek
[pb-1]
56
60
2.0
4.2 → 8.3
3×1030 1.5×1030 0.5
Average store polarization: 30%
injection: γ = 25.936 store: γ = 218.368


Total delivered integrated luminosities:
experiment β*
[m]
luminosity
[pb-1]




PHENIX 2.0
0.05




STAR 2.0
0.05




PHOBOS 10.0
0.01




Time in store: (only 2 consecutive stores)







Mode 2A: polarized p on polarized p at 100.2 GeV particle energy [Run-5 p-p web site]
Summary paper: M. Bai, L. Ahrens, J. Alessi, J. Beebe-Wang, M. Blaskiewicz, A. Bravar, J.M. Brennan, D. Bruno, G. Bunce, J. Butler, P. Cameron, R. Connolly, J. DeLong, T. D'Ottavio, A. Drees, W. Fischer, G. Ganetis, C.J. Gardner, J. Glenn, T. Hayes, H.-C. Hseuh, H. Huang, P. Ingrassia, U. Iriso, J.S. Laster, R.C. Lee, A.U. Luccio, Y. Luo, W.W. MacKay, Y. Makdisi, G.J. Marr, A. Marusic, G. McIntyre, R. Michnoff, C. Montag, J. Morris, T. Nicoletti, P. Oddo, J. Osamu, F.C. Pilat, V. Ptitsyn, T. Roser, T. Satogata, K. Smith, S. Tepikian, R. Tomas, D. Trbojevic, N. Tsoupas, J. Tuozzolo, K. Vetter, M. Wilinski, A. Zaltsman, A. Zelenski, K. Zeno, S.Y. Zhang, I.G. Alekseev, and D. Svirida, "Polarized proton collisions at RHIC", proceedings of the 2005 Particle Accelerator Conference, Knoxville, TN, USA (2005).
Beam operation: 03/25/05 - 06/24/05 (66 days for physics, excluding 05/31/05 - 06/03/05 for Mode 2B)
Run Coordinator: Mei Bai   (AGS coordinator: Haixin Huang)
Major accomplishments and events: polarized source upgraded with new superconducting solenoid; 60% polarization at AGS extraction; first acceleration of polarized protons in AGS with cold snake (1011 protons per bunch, 50% polarization at AGS extraction) - not yet used for physics; 3 weeks of set-up and ramp-up; operation with up to 111 bunches per ring; increased store polarization by 5%; more calibration data with H-jet; 56% of calendar time in store
Achieved beam parameters:
no of
bunches
ions/bunch
[109]
β*
[m]
rms emittance
[μm]
Lpeak
[cm-2s-1]
Lstore avg
[cm-2s-1]
Lweek
[pb-1]
106
90
1.0
5.0 → 5.8
10×1030 7×1030 1.9
Average store polarization: 49% in Blue, 45% in Yellow (final H-Jet measurement)*
injection: γ = 25.936
store: γ = 106.831, Gγ = 191.5


Total delivered integrated luminosities:
experiment
β*
[m]
luminosity
[pb-1]*




PHENIX 1.0
12.6 (0.65)




STAR
1.0
12.7 (0.66)




BRAHMS
3.0
  4.2 (0.19)




*Amount in brackets denotes delivered luminosity with vertical polarization, the remainder was delivered with longitudinal polarization.
Time in store: 56% of calendar time (run average for physics operation)







Mode 1C: 63Cu29+ on 63Cu29+ at 11.2 GeV/nucleon particle energy [Run-5 Cu-Cu web site]
Summary paper: F. Pilat, L. Ahrens, M. Bai, D.S. Barton, J. Beebe-Wang, M. Blaskiewicz, J.M. Brennan, D. Bruno, P. Cameron, R. Connolly, J. DeLong, T. D'Otavio, A. Drees, W. Fischer, G. Ganetis, C. Gardner, J. Glenn, P. Harvey, T. Hayes, H.-C. Hseuh, H. Huang, P. Ingrassia, U. Iriso, R. Lee, V.N. Litvinenko, Y. Luo, W.W. MacKay, G. Marr, A. Marusic, R. Michnoff, C. Montag, J. Morris, A. Nicoletti, B. Oerter, V. Ptitsyn, T. Roser, T. Russo, J. Sandberg, T. Satogata, C. Schultheiss, S. Tepikian, R. Tomas, D. Trbojevic, N. Tsoupas, J. Tuozzolo, K. Vetter, A. Zaltsman, K. Zeno, S.Y. Zhang, W. Zhang, "Operations and performance of RHIC as a Cu-Cu collider", proceedings of the 2005 Particle Accelerator Conference, Knoxville, TN, USA (2005).
Beam operation: 03/22/05 - 03/24/05 (42 hours total, 39 hours for physics)
Run Coordinator: Fulvia Pilat
Major accomplishments and events: 82% of calendar time in store (at reduced bunch intensity, large emittance, and luminosity lifetime of about 0.5h)
Achieved beam parameters:
no of
bunches
ions/bunch
[109]
β*
[m]
rms emittance
[μm]
Lpeak
[cm-2s-1]
Lstore avg
[cm-2s-1]
Lweek
[nb-1]
56
3.8
3.0
8.3 → 8.3
2.5×1026
0.5×1026
0.02
injection: γ = 12.075 store: γ = 12.075


Total delivered integrated luminosities:
experiment β*
[m]
luminosity
[nb-1]




PHENIX 3.0
0.006




STAR 3.0
0.006




BRAHMS 3.0
0.002




PHOBOS 3.0
0.004




Time in store: 82% of calendar time (run average for physics operation)







Mode 1B: 63Cu29+ on 63Cu29+ at 31.2 GeV/nucleon particle energy [Run-5 Cu-Cu web site]
Summary paper: F. Pilat, L. Ahrens, M. Bai, D.S. Barton, J. Beebe-Wang, M. Blaskiewicz, J.M. Brennan, D. Bruno, P. Cameron, R. Connolly, J. DeLong, T. D'Otavio, A. Drees, W. Fischer, G. Ganetis, C. Gardner, J. Glenn, P. Harvey, T. Hayes, H.-C. Hseuh, H. Huang, P. Ingrassia, U. Iriso, R. Lee, V.N. Litvinenko, Y. Luo, W.W. MacKay, G. Marr, A. Marusic, R. Michnoff, C. Montag, J. Morris, A. Nicoletti, B. Oerter, V. Ptitsyn, T. Roser, T. Russo, J. Sandberg, T. Satogata, C. Schultheiss, S. Tepikian, R. Tomas, D. Trbojevic, N. Tsoupas, J. Tuozzolo, K. Vetter, A. Zaltsman, K. Zeno, S.Y. Zhang, W. Zhang, "Operations and performance of RHIC as a Cu-Cu collider", proceedings of the 2005 Particle Accelerator Conference, Knoxville, TN, USA (2005).
Beam operation: 03/07/05 - 03/22/05 (15 days total, 12 days for physics)
Run Coordinator: Fulvia Pilat
Major accomplishments and events: 74% of calendar time in store (at reduced bunch intensity)
Achieved beam parameters:
no of
bunches
ions/bunch
[109]
β*
[m]
rms emittance
[μm]
Lpeak
[cm-2s-1]
Lstore avg
[cm-2s-1]
Lweek
[nb-1]
42
3.1
3.0
2.5 → 5.0
0.10×1028 0.08×1028 0.28
injection: γ = 12.075 store: γ = 33.540



Total delivered integrated luminosities:
experiment β*
[m]
luminosity
[nb-1]




PHENIX 3.0
0.52




STAR 3.0
0.47




BRAHMS 5.0
0.30




PHOBOS 5.0
0.25




Time in store: 74% of calendar time (run average for physics operation)







Mode 1A: 63Cu29+ on 63Cu29+ at 100.0 GeV/nucleon particle energy [Run-5 Cu-Cu web site]
Summary paper: F. Pilat, L. Ahrens, M. Bai, D.S. Barton, J. Beebe-Wang, M. Blaskiewicz, J.M. Brennan, D. Bruno, P. Cameron, R. Connolly, J. DeLong, T. D'Otavio, A. Drees, W. Fischer, G. Ganetis, C. Gardner, J. Glenn, P. Harvey, T. Hayes, H.-C. Hseuh, H. Huang, P. Ingrassia, U. Iriso, R. Lee, V.N. Litvinenko, Y. Luo, W.W. MacKay, G. Marr, A. Marusic, R. Michnoff, C. Montag, J. Morris, A. Nicoletti, B. Oerter, V. Ptitsyn, T. Roser, T. Russo, J. Sandberg, T. Satogata, C. Schultheiss, S. Tepikian, R. Tomas, D. Trbojevic, N. Tsoupas, J. Tuozzolo, K. Vetter, A. Zaltsman, K. Zeno, S.Y. Zhang, W. Zhang, "Operations and performance of RHIC as a Cu-Cu collider", proceedings of the 2005 Particle Accelerator Conference, Knoxville, TN, USA (2005).
Beam operation: 11/23/04 - 03/07/05 (104 days total, 55 days for physics)
Run Coordinator: Fulvia Pilat
Major accomplishments and events: 252 m of NEG coated beam pipes installed in warm regions; sector 5 triplet roll adjusted to minimize local skew quadrupole strength in Blue and Yellow; start-up/ramp-up in 2.5 weeks (1.5 weeks less than planned, excluding 4 weeks repair of bus shorts in Yellow ring); injectors delivered enough bunch intensity to run at beam-beam limit with 4 experiments; β* reduced to 0.9 m at STAR
Achieved beam parameters (PHENIX/STAR):
no of
bunches
ions/bunch
[109]
β*
[m]
rms emittance
[μm]
Lpeak
[cm-2s-1]
Lstore avg
[cm-2s-1]
Lweek
[nb-1]
37/35
4.5
1.0/0.9
2.5 → 5.0
2×1028 0.8×1028 2.4
injection: γ = 12.075
store: γ = 107.502



Total delivered integrated luminosities:
experiment β*
[m]
luminosity
[nb-1]




PHENIX 1.0
15.2




STAR 0.9
15.0




BRAHMS 2.5
6.2




PHOBOS 2.5
5.7




Time in store: 52% of calendar time (run average for physics operation)














Run-4
CY2003/04
FY2004
Retreat after Run-4, 07/07/2004 - 07/08/2004, Port Jefferson [Retreat web site]
Mode 2: polarized p on polarized p at 100.2 GeV particle energy [Run-4 p-p web site]
(development run, not primarily for physics)
Summary paper: M. Bai, R. Tomas, L. Ahrens, K. Brown, A. Drees, C.J. Gardner, J.W. Glenn, W. Fischer, U. Iriso, H. Huang, Y. Luo, F. Pilat, W.W. MacKay, G. Marr, C. Montag, V. Ptitsyn, R. Roser, T. Satogata, S. Tepikian, N. Tsoupas, J. van Zeijts, "RHIC polarized proton new working point commissioning", submitted to the proceedings of 16th International Spin Physics Symposium, Trieste, Italy (2004).
Beam operation: 04/02/2004 - 05/15/2004 (43 days total) 
Run Coordinator: Mei Bai  (AGS coordinator: Haixin Huang)
Major accomplishments and events: new AGS warm snake increases AGS polarization by 20%; maximum polarization from AGS 50% (consistently 45%); maximum polarization in RHIC at store 45% (consistently 40%); polarized H-jet commissioned and operated for calibration of RHIC proton-Carbon polarimeters; peak luminosity in excess of 1031cm-2s-1 at 2 experiments and no polarization; repeated stores with 40% average polarization and 4·1030cm-2s-1 average luminosity at 4 experiments; new working point (0.69,0.68) commissioned
Achieved beam parameters:
no of
bunches
ions/bunch
[109]
β*
[m]
rms emittance
[μm]
Lpeak
[cm-2s-1]
Lstore avg
[cm-2s-1]
Lweek
[pb-1]
56
70
1.0
3.3
6×1030 4×1030 0.9
Average store polarization: 46% in Blue and Yellow
injection: γ = 25.936 store: γ = 106.831, Gγ = 191.5


Total delivered integrated luminosities:
experiment β*
[m]
luminosity
[pb-1]




PHENIX 1.0
3.0




STAR 1.0
3.2




BRAHMS 3.0
0.3




PHOBOS 3.0
0.6




Time in store: (no continuous physics operation)







Mode 1B: 197Au79+ on 197Au79+ at 31.2 GeV/nucleon particle energy [Run-4 Au-Au web site]
Summary paper: W. Fischer, L. Ahrens, J. Alessi, M. Bai, D. Barton, J. Beebe-Wang, M. Blaskiewicz, J.M. Brennan, D. Bruno, J. Butler, R. Calaga, P. Cameron, R. Connolly, J. Delong, T. D'Ottavio, A. Drees, W. Fu, G. Ganetis, W. Glenn, T. Hayes, P. He, H. Huang, H.C. Hseuh, P. Ingrassia, U. Iriso, R. Lee, Y. Luo, G. Marr, W.W. MacKay, A. Marusic, R. Michnoff, C. Montag, J. Morris, T. Nicoletti, B. Oerter, S. Peggs, A. Pendzick, C. Pearson, F. Pilat, V. Ptitsyn, T. Roser, J. Sandberg, T. Satogata, C. Schultheiss, A. Sidi-Yekhlef, L. Smart, S. Tepikian, R. Tomas, N. Tsoupas, D. Trbojevic, J. Tuozzolo, K. Vetter, K. Yip, A. Zaltsman, A. Zhang, S.Y. Zhang, J. van Zeijts, and the RHIC Operations Team "Luminosity increases in gold-gold operation in RHIC", proceedings of the 2004 European Particle Accelerator Conference, Lucerne, Switzerland (2004).
Beam operation: 03/24/2004 - 04/02/2004 (9 days total, 9 days for physics)
Run Coordinator: Wolfram Fischer
Major accomplishments and events: set-up in less than 2 days (largely during Mode 1A); 65% of calendar time in store
Achieved beam parameters:
no of
bunches
ions/bunch
[109]
β*
[m]
rms emittance
[μm]
Lpeak
[cm-2s-1]
Lstore avg
[cm-2s-1]
Lweek
[μb-1]
45
1.0
3.0
2.5 → 5.0
1.2×1026 0.6×1026 20
injection: γ = 10.520
γ store: 33.508



Total delivered integrated luminosities:
experiment
β*
[m]
luminosity
[μb-1]




PHENIX 3.0
21.8



STAR 3.0
20.7



BRAHMS 5.0
12.2



PHOBOS 5.0
12.3



Time in store: 65% of calendar time (run average for physics operation)







Mode 1A: 197Au79+ on 197Au79+ at 100.0 GeV/nucleon particle energy [Run-4 Au-Au web site]
Summary paper: W. Fischer, L. Ahrens, J. Alessi, M. Bai, D. Barton, J. Beebe-Wang, M. Blaskiewicz, J.M. Brennan, D. Bruno, J. Butler, R. Calaga, P. Cameron, R. Connolly, J. Delong, T. D'Ottavio, A. Drees, W. Fu, G. Ganetis, W. Glenn, T. Hayes, P. He, H. Huang, H.C. Hseuh, P. Ingrassia, U. Iriso, R. Lee, Y. Luo, G. Marr, W.W. MacKay, A. Marusic, R. Michnoff, C. Montag, J. Morris, T. Nicoletti, B. Oerter, S. Peggs, A. Pendzick, C. Pearson, F. Pilat, V. Ptitsyn, T. Roser, J. Sandberg, T. Satogata, C. Schultheiss, A. Sidi-Yekhlef, L. Smart, S. Tepikian, R. Tomas, N. Tsoupas, D. Trbojevic, J. Tuozzolo, K. Vetter, K. Yip, A. Zaltsman, A. Zhang, S.Y. Zhang, J. van Zeijts, and the RHIC Operations Team "Luminosity increases in gold-gold operation in RHIC", proceedings of the 2004 European Particle Accelerator Conference, Lucerne, Switzerland (2004).
Beam operation: 11/26/2003 - 03/24/2004 (118 days total, 84 days for physics)
Run Coordinator: Wolfram Fischer
Major accomplishments and events: start-up/ramp-up in 4 weeks (1 less than planned); consistently high bunch intensity (>109 Au ions)  delivered by injectors, 53% of calendar time in store; reliable and almost complete rebucketing; first use of secondary collimators, luminosity steering and collimator setting time reduced to 10 min, orbit correction after each ramp; dedicated Landau cavities; 2-stage collimation; PHENIX shielding installed; 57 m of NEG coated beam pipes and 64m of solenoids installed
Achieved beam parameters:
no of
bunches
ions/bunch
[109]
β*
[m]
rms emittance
[μm]
Lpeak
[cm-2s-1]
Lstore avg
[cm-2s-1]
Lweek
[μb-1]
45
1.1
1.0
2.5 → 6.7
15×1026
5×1026 160
injection: γ = 10.520 store: γ = 107.396



Total delivered integrated luminosities:
experiment β*
[m]
luminosity
[μb-1]
luminosity
[rel. to Run-2]



PHENIX
1.0
1260
14× Recorded number of 1370 μb-1reduced by 8% after Run-7 to account for single accidentals
STAR
1.0
1170 20× Recorded number of 1270 μb-1reduced by 8% after Run-7 to account for single accidentals
BRAHMS
3.0
560 13×


PHOBOS
3.0
540


Time in store: 53% of calendar time (run average for physics operation)














Run-3
CY2002/03
FY2003
Retreat after Run-3, 06/10/2003 - 06/12/2003, BNL [Retreat web site]
Mode 2: polarized p on polarized p at 100.2 GeV particle energy [Run-3 p-p web site]
Summary paper: H. Huang, L. Ahrens, J.G. Alessi, I. Alekseev, M. Bai, J. Beebe-Wang, S. Bravar, M. Brennan, K.A. Brown, G. Bunce, A. Drees, W. Fischer, C. Gardner, W. Glenn, G. Igo, O. Jinnochi, A.U. Luccio, W. MacKay, C. Montag, F. Pilat, V. Ptitsyn, T. Roser, T. Satogata, H. Spinka, D. Svirida, S. Tepikian, D. Trbojevic, N. Tsoupas, D. Underwood, J. van Zeijts, J. Wood, A. Zelenski, K. Zeno, and S.Y. Zhang, "Polarized proton acceleration at the Brookhaven AGS and RHIC", proceedings of the 2003 Particle Accelerator Conference, Portland, OR, USA (2003).
Beam operation: 03/26/2003 - 05/30/2003 (63 days total)
Run Coordinator: Haixin Huang
Major accomplishments and events: source polarization of 70-75%; AGS polarization of 40%; longitudinal spin rotators commissioned for PHENIX and STAR; Yellow ring polarization maintained with crippled snake
Achieved beam parameters:
no of
bunches
ions/bunch
[109]
β*
[m]
rms emittance
[μm]
Lpeak
[cm-2s-1]
Lstore avg
[cm-2s-1]
Lweek
[pb-1]
55
70
1.0
3.3
6×1030 4×1030 0.6
Average store polarization: 39% in Blue, 30% in Yellow
injection: γ = 25.936 store: γ = 106.831, Gγ = 191.5


Total delivered integrated luminosities:
experiment β*
[m]
luminosity
[pb-1]




PHENIX 1.0
2.0




STAR 1.0
2.5




BRAHMS 3.0
0.6




PHOBOS 3.0
0.4




pp2pp (IR2)
10.0
< 0.1
special run 05/19/2004 - 05/21/2004
Time in store: 41% of calendar time (last 23 days of physics operation)







Mode 1: d at 100.7 GeV/nucleon on 197Au79+ at 100.0 GeV/nucleon particle energy [Run-3 d-Au web site]
d (deuteron) is the nucleus of the 2H (deuterium) atom.
Summary article: T. Satogata, L. Ahrens, M. Bai, J. Beebe-Wang, M. Blaskiewicz, J.M. Brennan, K.A. Brown, D. Bruno, P. Cameron, J. Cardona, R. Connolly, A. Drees, W. Fischer, R.P. Fliller III, G. Ganetis, C. Gardner, J.W. Glenn, H. Hahn, T. Hayes, H. Huang, U. Iriso-Ariz, W.W. MacKay, A. Marusic, R. Michnoff, C. Montag, F. Pilat, V. Ptitsyn, T. Roser, K. Smith, S. Tepikian, and D. Trbojevic, "Commissioning of the RHIC deuteron-gold collisions", proceedings of the 2003 Particle Accelerator Conference, Portland, OR, USA (2003).
Beam operation: 12/03/2002 - 03/24/2003 (111 days total, 71 days for physics)
Run Coordinator: Todd Satogata
Major accomplishments and events: first asymmetric collisions; injection with equal revolution frequency (found strong effects from modulated beam-beam interaction with injection with equal rigidity); first operation with 110 bunches (lead to unacceptable vacuum and subsequent background problems); Landau cavity in Blue ring for deuterons (one of the storage cavities); coherence monitor
Achieved beam parameters:
no of
bunches
ions/bunch
[109]
β*
[m]
rms emittance
[μm]
Lpeak
[cm-2s-1]
Lstore avg
[cm-2s-1]
Lweek
[nb-1]
55
110 d / 0.7 Au
2.0
2.2 → 4.2
7×1028 3×1028 4.6
injection: γ = 11.663 (both beams)
store: γ = 107.396 (both beams)

Note: Injection with same rigidity for both beams, and thus different revolution frequencies, lead to unacceptable beam lifetime due to modulated beam-beam interaction.
Total delivered integrated luminosities:
experiment β*
[m]
luminosity
[nb-1]




PHENIX 2.0
24.2




STAR 2.0
19.7




BRAHMS 2.0, 3.0
15.8




PHOBOS 2.0, 4.0, 3.0
13.4




Time in store: 32% of calendar time (last 27 days of physics operation)














Run-2
CY2001/02
FY2001/02

Retreat after Run-2, 03/05/2002 - 03/07/2002, Montauk [Retreat web site]
Mode 2: polarized p on polarized p at 100.2 GeV particle energy [Run-2 web site]
Summary article: T. Roser, L. Ahrens, J. Alessi, M. Bai, J. Beebe-Wang, J.M. Brennan, K.A. Brown, G. Bunce, P. Cameron, E.D. Courant, A. Drees, W. Fischer, R. Fliller III, W. Glenn, H. Huang, A.U. Luccio, W.W. MacKay, Y. Makdisi, C. Montag, F. Pilat, V. Ptitsyn, T. Satogata, S. Tepikian, D. Trbojevic, N. Tsoupas, J. van Zeijts, A. Zelenski, K. Zeno, A. Deshpande, K. Kurita, K. Krueger, H. Spinka, D. Underwood, M. Syphers, I. Alekseev, D. Svirida, V. Ranjbar, J. Tojo, O. Jinnouchi, M. Okamura and N. Saito, "First polarized proton collisions at RHIC", Workshop on Increasing the AGS Polarization, University of Michigan (2002).
Beam operation: 11/28/2001 - 01/25/2002 (58 days)
Run Coordinator: Waldo MacKay
Major accomplishments and events: all 4 Siberian snakes commissioned; first ever collisions of polarized proton beams
Achieved beam parameters:
no of
bunches
ions/bunch
[109]
β*
[m]
rms emittance
[μm]
Lpeak
[cm-2s-1]
Lstore avg
[cm-2s-1]
Lweek
[pb-1]
55
70
3.0
4.2
2×1030 1×1030 0.3
Average store polarization: 12% in Blue, 17% in Yellow
injection: γ = 25.936 store: γ = 106.831, Gγ = 191.5



Total delivered integrated luminosities:
experiment β*
[m]
luminosity
[pb-1]




PHENIX 3.0
0.35




STAR 3.0
0.47




BRAHMS 3.0
0.30




PHOBOS 3.0
0.30




pp2pp
10.0
< 0.001
special run 01/24/2002 - 01/25/2002 (4 shifts)
Time in store: 30% of calendar time (last 24 days of physics operation)







Mode 1B: 197Au79+ on 197Au79+ at 9.8 GeV/nucleon particle energy [Run-2 web site]
Beam operation: 11/25/2001 - 11/26/2001 (3 shifts total, 2 shifts for physics)
Run Coordinator: Todd Satogata
Major accomplishments and events: set-up of collisions at injection in 6 hours, average refill times of less than 10 min
Achieved beam parameters:
no of
bunches
ions/bunch
[109]
β*
[m]
rms emittance
[μm]
Lpeak
[cm-2s-1]
Lstore avg
[cm-2s-1]
Lweek
[μb-1]
55
0.6
3.0
2.5
8×1024 2×1024 1
injection: γ = 10.520
store: γ = 10.520



Total delivered integrated luminosities:
experiment β*
[m]
luminosity
[μb-1]




PHENIX 3.0
0.1




STAR 3.0
0.1




BRAHMS 3.0
0.1




PHOBOS 3.0
0.1




Time in store: (only hours of physics operation)







Mode 1A: 197Au79+ on 197Au79+ at 100.0 GeV/nucleon particle energy [Run-2 web site]
Summary article: D. Trbojevic, L. Ahrens, M. Bai, J. Beebe-Wang, M. Blaskiewicz, J.M. Brennan, P. Cameron, J. Cardona, R. Connolly, A. Drees, W. Fischer, R. Fliller III, G. Ganetis, W. Glenn, H. Hahn, T. Hayes, H. Huang, J. Kewisch, W.W. MacKay, A. Marusic, C. Montag, S. Peggs, F. Pilat, V. Ptitsyn, T. Roser, T. Satogata, K. Smith, S. Tepikian, N. Tsoupas, and J. van Zeijts, "Commissioning of RHIC at 100 GeV/nucleon", proceedings of the 2002 European Particle Accelerator Conference, Paris, France (2002).
Beam operation: 05/24/2001 - 11/25/2001 (185 days total, 111 days for physics)
Run Coordinator: Dejan Trbojevic
Major accomplishments and events: first Au-Au collisions at full energy; luminosity reached design value (2·1026cm-2s-1 average per store); γt-jump commissioned; octupoles for transition crossing;  β-squeeze along the energy ramp;  β* at PHENIX reduced to 1 m; operated with 1.8 mrad total crossing angle at BRHAMS (later reduced to 0.9 mrad); storage cavities commissioned; gap cleaning introduced; Landau cavities tested; electronic logbook introduced
Achieved beam parameters:
no of
bunches
ions/bunch
[109]
β*
[m]
rms emittance
[μm]
Lpeak
[cm-2s-1]
Lstore avg
[cm-2s-1]
Lweek
[μb-1]
55
0.6
1.0
2.5 → 6.7
4×1026 1.5×1026 24
injection: γ = 10.520 store: γ = 107.396


Total delivered integrated luminosities:
experiment β*
[m]
luminosity
[μb-1]




PHENIX 3.0, 2.0, 1.0
93




STAR 3.0, 2.0
59




BRAHMS 3.0, 2.0
44




PHOBOS 3.0, 2.0
62




Time in store: 26% of calendar time (last 21 days of physics operation)














Run-1
CY2000
FY2000

Retreat after Run-1, 11/16/2000 - 11/17/2000, University at Stony Brook [Retreat web site]
Mode 2: polarized p at 24.3 GeV and 25.1 GeV particle energy [Run-1 web site]
Summary article: W. MacKay, L. Ahrens, M. Bai, G. Bunce, E. Courant, A. Deshpande, A. Drees, W. Fischer, H. Huang, K. Kurita, A. Lehrach, A. Luccio, Y. Makdisi, F. Pilat, V. Ptitsyn, T. Roser, N. Saito, T. Satogata, S. Tepikian, D. Trbojevic, N. Tsoupas, J. van Zeijts, BNL; H. Spinka, D. Underwood ANL; D. Svirida, I. Alekseev, V. Kanavets ITEP, Moscow; B. Lozowski, V. Ranjbar, Indiana University; J. Tojo, K. Imai Kyoto University; D. Fields, University of New Mexico, "Commissioning and future plans for polarized protons in RHIC", proceedings of the 2001 Particle Accelerator Conference, Chicago, IL, USA (2001).
Beam operation: 09/07/2000 - 09/19/2000 (12 days total)
Run Coordinator: Thomas Roser
Major accomplishments and events: one Siberian snake commissioned in Blue ring; proton-Carbon CNI polarimeters commissioned; polarized beam stored and accelerated from Gγ = 46.5 to Gγ = 48; used working point (0.11,0.13)
injection: γ = 25.936











Mode 1B: 197Au79+ on 197Au79+ at 65.2 GeV/nucleon particle energy [Run-1 web site]
Summary article: D. Trbojevic, L. Ahrens, M. Blaskiewicz, M. Brennan, M. Bai, P. Cameron, J. Cardona, R. Connolly, J. DeLong, A. Drees, R.P. Fliller, W. Fischer, G. Ganetis, W. Glenn, H. Hahn, T. Hayes, A. Lehrach, W. MacKay, J. Kewisch, S. Peggs, V. Ptitsyn, T. Roser, T. Satogata, T. Shea, K. Smith. S. Tepikian, N. Tsoupas, and J. van Zeijts, "Commissioning of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider", proceedings of the 2001 Particle Accelerator Conference, Chicago, IL, USA (2001).
Beam operation: 06/13/2000 - 09/02/2000 (81 days total, 37 days for physics)
Run Coordinator: Thomas Roser
Major accomplishments and events: first collisions at higher energies; first use of collimators
Achieved beam parameters:
no of
bunches
ions/bunch
[109]
β*
[m]
rms emittance
[μm]
Lpeak
[cm-2s-1]
Lstore avg
[cm-2s-1]
Lweek
[μb-1]
56
0.5
3.0
2.5
3×1025 1.7×1025 4
injection: γ = 10.250 (not a typo)
store: γ = 70.000

Total delivered integrated luminosities:
experiment β*
[m]
luminosity
[μb-1]




PHENIX
3.0
7




STAR 3.0
7




BRAHMS 8.0
3




PHOBOS 8.0
3











Mode 1A: 197Au79+ on 197Au79+ at 27.9 GeV/nucleon particle energy [Run-1 web site]
Beam operation: 03/20/2000 - 06/13/2000 (86 days total, last 3 shifts for physics)
Run Coordinator: Thomas Roser
Major accomplishments and events: first acceleration of both beams; transition crossing with fast radial change; first collisions of gold beams
Achieved beam parameters:
no of
bunches
ions/bunch
[109]
β*
[m]
rms emittance
[μm]
Lpeak
[cm-2s-1]
Lstore avg
[cm-2s-1]
Lweek
[μb-1]
6
0.1
3.0
2.5
1×1024
0.5×1024 0.003
injection: γ = 10.250  (not a typo)
store: γ = 30.000

Total delivered integrated luminosities:
experiment β*
[m]
luminosity
[μb-1]




PHENIX 3.0
<0.001




STAR 3.0
<0.001




BRAHMS 3.0
<0.001




PHOBOS 3.0
<0.001


















Run-0
CY1999
FY1999
Retreat after Run-0, 09/16/2000 - 09/17/2000, University at Stony Brook [Retreat web site]
197Au79+ at 11.3 GeV/nucleon particle energy  [Run-0 web site]
Beam operation: 06/07/1999 - 08/16/1999 (70 days total)
Run Coordinator: Steve Peggs
Major accomplishments and events: beam stored in Blue ring for 45 min; beam stored in Yellow ring for thousands of turns; beam accelerated in Blue ring by 1 GeV/nucleon
injection: γ = 12.09 store: γ = 12.09

















Sextant Test
CY1997/98
FY1997
197Au79+ at 11.3 GeV/nucleon particle energy [Sextant Test web site]
Summary papers: J. Wei, W. Fischer, L. Ahrens, J. M. Brennan, K. Brown, R. Connolly, G. F. Dell, M. Harrison, J. Kewisch, W. W. MacKay, V. Mane, S. Peggs, F. Pilat, T. Satogata, S. Tepikian, P. Thompson, C. G. Trahern, D. Trbojevic, N. Tsoupas, "RHIC sextant test - physics and performance", proceedings of the 1997 Particle Accelerator Conference, Vancouver, BC, Canada (1997).
F. Pilat, L. Ahrens, K. Brown, R Connolly, G.F. Dell, W. Fischer, J. Kewisch, W. MacKay, V. Mane, S. Peggs, T. Satogata, S. Tepikian, P. Thompson, D. Trbojevic, N. Tsoupas, J. Wei, "RHIC sextant test - accelerator systems and performance", proceedings of the 1997 Particle Accelerator Conference, Vancouver, BC, Canada (1997).
Beam operation: 12/09/1997 - 02/02/1998 (55 days total)
Test Coordinator: Steve Peggs
Major accomplishments and events: transported Yellow beam to end of sector 4 arc; tested instrumentation; measured beam and line properties
injection: γ = 12.15



















AtR Test
CY1995
FY1995

197Au79+ at 11.7 GeV/nucleon particle energy [AtR Test web site]
Summary paper: W.W. MacKay, L. Ahrens, M. Brennan, K. Brown. T. Clifford, R. Connolly, F. Dell, D.P. Deng, L. Hoff, J. Kewisch, G. Kaldonado, B. Martin, R. Olsen, S. Peggs, F. Pilat, T. Robinson, S. Sathe, T. Satogata, D. Shea, T.J. Shea, M. Tanaka, P. Thompson, S. Tepikian, C.G. Trahern, D. Trbojevic, N. Tsoupas, J. Wei, R. Witkover, P. Zhou, "AGS to RHIC transfer line - design and commissioning", proceedings of the 1996 European Particle Accelerator Conference, Sitges, Spain (1996).
Beam operation: 11/06/1995 - 12/19/1995 (43 days total)
Test Coordinator: Waldo MacKay
Major accomplishments and events: transported beam to W-dump; tested instrumentation; measured beam and line properties
injection: γ = 12.6